PODCAST: The RAND Corporation Found that Commercial Health Insurance Plans Pay Hospitals 241% What Medicare Pays

The RAND Corporation Found that Commercial Health Insurance Plans Pay Hospitals 241% What Medicare Pays.

But Also That It Varies from 150% to 400%.

Dr. Boram (Kim) Park, MD - Dallas, TX | Internal Medicine

BY ERIC BRICKER MD

Health Insurance Companies Paid for Hospital Outpatient Services at an Even Higher Average Rate of 293% of Medicare.

A Detailed Look at the RAND Analysis Reveals that the ‘Basket’ of Services at Each Hospital Had Very Little Data.

For Example, the RAND Study’s Data for the Baylor Scott & White Hospital System in Dallas – Fort Worth Represented Only 0.4% of the Hospital’s Total Revenue.

For the Texas Health Hospital System Also in Dallas – Fort Worth, the RAND Study’s Data Only Represented 0.96% of the Hospital’s Total Revenue.

That Sample Size Is Likely Too Small to Make Accurate Comparisons from One Hospital System to Another Regarding their Commercial Insurance Prices Relative to Medicare.

ASSESSMENT: Your thoughts and comments are appreciated.

THANK YOU

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PODCAST: Medicare Hospital Re-Admission Penalties

EXPLAINED!

BY ERIC BRICKER MD

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YOUR COMMENTS ARE APPRECIATED.

THANK YOU

CITE: https://www.r2library.com/Resource/Title/0826102549

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The Health Economic Costs Moving from Adult EMPLOYER Sponsored Health Insurance to MEDICARE Coverage

Impact of Moving Older Adults from Employer Coverage to Medicare

Peterson-KFF’s recent brief “How Lowering the Medicare Eligibility Age Might Affect Employer-Sponsored Insurance Costs” explores potential percent reduction in employer health plan spending if all enrollees in age group leave large employer-sponsored coverage.

The brief found:

 •  Ages 60-64 would cause a 15% reduction
 •  Ages 55-64 would cause a 30% reduction
 •  Ages 50-64 would cause a 43% reduction

CITE: https://www.r2library.com/Resource/Title/0826102549

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Understanding Medicare options to help make confident ...

Source: Peterson-KFF Health System Tracker, “How Lowering the Medicare Eligibility Age Might Affect Employer-Sponsored Insurance Costs”

Your thoughts are appreciated.

THANK YOU

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COVID-19 UPDATE: Vaccine Booster Shots

BY MEDICARE TEAM

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Important update on COVID-19 vaccine booster shots
If you previously got 2 doses of the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine, you can get a booster shot of the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine if you fall into one of these groups:

You’re 65 and older,You’re 18+ and have certain underlying medical conditions, or
You’re 18+ and work or live in a high-risk setting.

You can get your booster shot at least 6 months after you complete your second dose of the Pfizer vaccine.
The booster shot can help strengthen and prolong your protection against COVID-19.

Learn More: Visit CDC.gov for more information on other groups already vaccinated with the Pfizer vaccine that may be eligible for a booster shot.

Remember: Medicare covers a Pfizer vaccine booster shot at no cost to you.

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Oregon says it's ready to provide COVID-19 booster shots to those eligible,  but asks for patience - KTVZ

Sincerely,
The Medicare Team
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PODCAST: APPEALS of Medicare Advantage [Part C] Plans

BY CMS

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YOUR COMMENTS ARE APPRECIATED.

Thank You

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PODCAST: Medicare Financial Matters

WHAT COUNTS AS INCOME SOURCES?

BY CMS

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YOUR COMMENTS ARE APPRECIATED.

Thank You

CITE: https://www.r2library.com/Resource/Title/0826102549

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Risk Management, Liability Insurance, and Asset Protection Strategies for Doctors and Advisors : Best Practices from Leading Consultants and Certified Medical Planners™ book cover

RISK MANAGEMENT: https://www.routledge.com/Risk-Management-Liability-Insurance-and-Asset-Protection-Strategies-for/Marcinko-Hetico/p/book/9781498725989

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Comprehensive Financial Planning Strategies for Doctors and Advisors: Best Practices from Leading Consultants and Certified Medical Planners™

FINANCIAL PLANNING: https://www.routledge.com/Comprehensive-Financial-Planning-Strategies-for-Doctors-and-Advisors-Best/Marcinko-Hetico/p/book/9781482240283

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Benefits of Healthcare Participation in Multiple Medical Payment Models

BY HEALTH CAPITAL CONSULTANTS, LLC

New Research Explores Benefits of Participation in Multiple Payment Models


An August 2021 study published in the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) analyzed medical and surgical episodes of care in U.S. hospitals to determine whether outcomes differed in hospitals that participated in Medicare’s Bundled Payments for Care Improvement (BPCI) Initiative depending on whether the patient being treated was attributed to a Medicare Shared Savings Program (MSSP) accountable care organization (ACO).

This Health Capital Topics article will discuss the study’s findings and potential policy implications. (Read more…)

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YOUR COMMENTS ARE APPRECIATED

Thank You

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Comprehensive Financial Planning Strategies for Doctors and Advisors: Best Practices from Leading Consultants and Certified Medical Planners™

ORE: https://www.routledge.com/Comprehensive-Financial-Planning-Strategies-for-Doctors-and-Advisors-Best/Marcinko-Hetico/p/book/9781482240283

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PODCAST: On Medicare PAYMENTS to Doctors

TO SPECIFIC PHYSICIANS

BY ERIC BRICKER MD

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MORE: https://medicalexecutivepost.com/2014/04/13/how-much-your-doctor-received-from-medicare/

YOUR COMMENTS ARE APPRECIATED.

Thank You

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CITE: https://www.r2library.com/Resource/Title/0826102549

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PODCAST: Medicare and Nursing Home / Long Term Care

By CMS

CITE: https://www.r2library.com/Resource/Title/0826102549

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YOUR COMMENTS ARE APPRECIATED.

Thank You

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PODCAST: Why Insurance Carriers Want MEDICARE-FOR-ALL

WHY M-4-A?

BY ERIC BRICKER MD

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YOUR COMMENTS ARE APPRECIATED.

Thank You.

CITE: https://www.r2library.com/Resource/Title/0826102549

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PODCAST: Understanding Your Medicare Choices

ORIGINAL MEDICARE, PART C, MEDIGAP AND YOU

CITE: https://www.r2library.com/Resource/Title/0826102549

BY MEDICARE – CMS

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YOUR COMMENTS ARE APPRECIATED.

Thank You

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PODCAST: The Four [4] Parts of Medicare

UNDERSTAND AND KNOW THE DIFFERENCE: A, B C & D

CITE: https://www.r2library.com/Resource/Title/0826102549

BY MEDICARE – CMS

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YOUR COMMENTS ARE APPRECIATED.

Thank You

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INTERVIEW: A Solution for Healthcare Financing?

HEALTHCARE FINANCING

Former: CEO and Founder
Superior Consultant Company, Inc.
[SUPC-NASD]

EDITOR’S NOTE: I first met Rich in B-school, when I was a student, back in the day. He was the Founder and CEO of Superior Consultant Holdings Corp. Rich graciously wrote the Foreword to one of my first textbooks on financial planning for physicians and healthcare professionals. Today, Rich is a successful entrepreneur in the technology, health and finance space.

-Dr. David E. Marcinko MBA CMP®

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Staff & Contributors - CHAMPIONS OF WAYNE

By Richard Helppie

Today for your consideration – How to fix the healthcare financing methods in the United States?

I use the term “methods” because calling what we do now a “system” is inaccurate. I also focus on healthcare financing, because in terms of healthcare delivery, there is no better place in the world than the USA in terms of supply and innovation for medical diagnosis and treatment. Similarly, I use the term healthcare financing to differentiate from healthcare insurance – because insurance without supply is an empty promise.

This is a straightforward, 4-part plan. It is uniquely American and will at last extend coverage to every US citizen while not hampering the innovation and robust supply that we have today. As this is about a Common Bridge and not about ideology or dogma, there will no doubt be aspects of this proposal that every individual will have difficulty with. However, on balance, I believe it is the most fair and equitable way to resolve the impasse on healthcare funding . . . .

CITE: https://www.r2library.com/Resource/Title/0826102549

Let me start in an area sure to raise the ire of a few. And that is, we have to start with eliminating the methods that are in place today. The first is the outdated notion that healthcare insurance is tied to one’s work, and the second is that there are overlapping and competing tax-supported bureaucracies to administer that area of healthcare finance.

Step 1 is to break the link between employment and health insurance. Fastest way to do that is simply tax the cost of benefits for the compensation that it is. This is how company cars, big life insurance policies and other fringe benefits were trimmed. Eliminating the tax-favored treatment of employer-provided healthcare is the single most important change that should be made.

Yes, you will hear arguments that this is an efficient market with satisfied customers. However, upon examination, it is highly risky, unfair, and frankly out of step with today’s job market.

Employer provided health insurance is an artifact from the 1940’s as an answer to wage freezes – an employer could not give a wage increase, but could offer benefits that weren’t taxed. It makes no sense today for a variety of reasons. Here are a few:

1. Its patently unfair. Two people living in the same apartment building, each making the same income and each have employer provided health insurance. Chris in unit 21 has a generous health plan that would be worth $25,000 each year. Pays zero tax on that compensation. Pat, in unit 42 has a skimpy plan with a narrow network, big deductibles and hefty co-pays. The play is worth $9,000 each year. Pat pays zero tax.

3. The insurance pools kick out the aged. Once one becomes too old to work, they are out of the employer plan and on to the retirement plan or over to the taxpayers (Medicare).

4. The structure is a bad fit. Health insurance and healthy living are longitudinal needs over a long period of time. In a time when people change careers and jobs frequently, or are in the gig economy, they are not any one place long enough for the insurance to work like insurance.

5. Creates perverse incentives. The incentives are weighted to have employers not have their work force meet the standards of employees so they don’t have to pay for the health insurance. Witness latest news in California with Uber and Lyft.

6. Incentives to deny claims abound. There is little incentive to serve the subscriber/patient since the likelihood the employer will shop the plan or the employee will change jobs means that stringing out a claim approval is a profitable exercise.

7. Employers have difficulty as purchasers. An employer large enough to supply health insurance has a diverse set of health insurance needs in their work force. They pay a lot of money and their work force is still not 100% happy.

Net of it, health insurance tied to work has outlived its usefulness. Time to end the tax-favored treatment of employer-based insurance. If an employer wants to provide health insurance, they can do it, but the value of that insurance is reflected in the taxable W-2 wages – now Pat and Chris will be treated equally.

Step 2 is to consolidate the multiple tax-supported bureaus that supply healthcare. Relieve the citizens from having to prove they are old enough, disabled enough, impoverished enough, young enough. Combine Medicare, Medicaid, CHIP, Tricare and even possibly the VA into a single bureaucracy. Every American Citizen gets this broad coverage at some level. Everyone pays something into the system – start at $20 a year, and then perhaps an income-adjusted escalator that would charge the most wealthy up to $75,000. Collect the money with a line on Form 1040.

I have not done the exact math. However, removing the process to prove eligibility and having one versus many bureaucracies has to generate savings. Are you a US Citizen? Yes, then here is your base insurance. Like every other nationalized system, one can expect longer waits, fewer referrals to a specialist, and less innovation. These centralized systems all squeeze supply of healthcare services to keep their spend down. The reports extolling their efficiencies come from the people whose livelihoods depend on the centralized system. However, at least everyone gets something. And, for life threatening health conditions, by and large the centralized systems do a decent job. With everyone covered, the fear of medical bankruptcy evaporates. The fear of being out of work and losing healthcare when one needs it most is gone.

So if you are a free market absolutist, then the reduction of vast bureaucracies should be attractive – no need for eligibility requirements (old enough, etc.) and a single administration which is both more efficient, more equitable (everyone gets the same thing). And there remains a private market (more on this in step 3) For those who detest private insurance companies a portion of that market just went away. There is less incentive to purchase a private plan. And for everyone’s sense of fairness, the national plan is funded on ability to pay. Bearing in mind that everyone has to pay something. Less bureaucracies. Everyone in it together. Funded on ability to pay.

Step 3 is to allow and even encourage a robust market for health insurance above and beyond the national plan – If people want to purchase more health insurance, then they have the ability to do so. Which increases supply, relieves burden on the tax-supported system, aligns the US with other countries, provides an alternative to medical tourism (and the associated health spend in our country) and offers a bit of competition to the otherwise monopolistic government plan.

Its not a new concept, in many respects it is like the widely popular Medigap plans that supplement what Medicare does not cover.

No one is forced to make that purchase. Other counties’ experience shows that those who choose to purchase private coverage over and above a national plan often cite faster access, more choice, innovation, or services outside the universal system, e.g., a woman who chooses to have mammography at an early age or with more frequency than the national plan might allow.  If the insurance provider can offer a good value to the price, then they will sell insurance. If they can deliver that value for more than their costs, then they create a profit. Owners of the company, who risk their capital in creating the business may earn a return.

For those of you who favor a free market, the choices are available. There will be necessary regulation to prevent discrimination on genetics, pre-existing conditions, and the like. Buy the type of plan that makes you feel secure – just as one purchases automobile and life insurance.For those who are supremely confident in the absolute performance of a centralized system to support 300+ million Americans in the way each would want, they should like this plan as well – because if the national plan is meeting all needs and no one wants perhaps faster services, then few will purchase the private insurance and the issuers will not have a business. Free choice. More health insurance for those who want it. Competition keeps both national and private plans seeking to better themselves.

Step 4 would be to Permit Access to Medicare Part D to every US Citizen, Immediately

One of the bright spots in the US Healthcare Financing Method is Medicare Part D, which provides prescription drug coverage to seniors. It is running at 95% subscriber satisfaction and about 40% below cost projections.

Subscribers choose from a wide variety of plans offered by private insurance companies. There are differences in formularies, co-pays, deductibles and premiums.

So there you have it, a four part plan that would maintain or increase the supply of healthcare services, universal insurance coverage, market competition, and lower costs. Its not perfect but I believe a vast improvement over what exists today. To recap:

1. Break the link between employment and healthcare insurance coverage, by taxing the benefits as the compensation they are.

2. Establish a single, universal plan that covers all US citizens paid for via personal income taxes on an ability-to-pay basis.  Eliminate all the other tax-funded plans in favor of this new one.

3. For those who want it, private, supplemental insurance to the national system, ala major industrialized nations.

4. Open Medicare Part D (prescription drugs) to every US citizen. Today.

YOUR THOUGHTS ARE APPRECIATED.

Thank You

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What’s the Latest on MEDICARE DRUG PRICE Negotiations?

BY KFF

Prescription drug costs are a major concern for consumers and a fiscal challenge for public and private payers, representing 10% of national health spending and nearly 20% of health benefit costs for large employers and Medicare.

In response, lawmakers are considering a broad range of policy options, including one that would allow the federal government to negotiate prescription drug prices on behalf of Medicare beneficiaries and people enrolled in private plans, a proposal that has strong bipartisan public support.

CITE: https://www.r2library.com/Resource/Title/0826102549

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Could Negotiating Medicare Drug Prices Save $300 Billion Per Year? |  Committee for a Responsible Federal Budget

This brief describes the current status of drug price negotiation proposals, looks back at the history of proposals to give the federal government the authority to negotiate drug prices in Medicare, describes the negotiation provisions in key legislation (H.R. 3), and discusses the potential spending effects for the federal government and individuals.

READ: https://www.kff.org/medicare/issue-brief/whats-the-latest-on-medicare-drug-price-negotiations/

UPDATE: https://www.msn.com/en-us/news/politics/medicare-trustees-sound-alarm-but-progressives-press-ahead-with-irresponsible-medicare-expansion/ar-AAOh6EA?li=BBnb7Kz

YOUR THOUGHTS AND COMMENTS ARE APPRECIATED.

Thank You

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MedPAC Examines Private Equity in Medicare

MedPAC Examines Private Equity Involvement in Medicare

By Health Capital Consultants, LLC


In 2020, at the request of the U.S. House Committee on Ways and Means (the Committee), the Medicare Payment Advisory Commission (MedPAC) began investigating the role that private equity (PE) plays in healthcare provided to Medicare beneficiaries.

CITE: https://www.r2library.com/Resource/Title/0826102549

In its June 2021 “Report to the Congress on Medicare and the Health Care Delivery System,” MedPAC included for the first time a chapter on PE’s effect on Medicare, wherein it discussed the findings and observations from its investigation and answered a number of questions posed by the Committee. This Health Capital Topics article will analyze MedPAC’s answers to those questions, review its investigation of PE’s role in healthcare, and summarize reactions from stakeholders. (Read more…)

Photo by RODNAE Productions on Pexels.com

YOUR THOUGHTS AND COMMENTS ARE APPRECIATED.

Thank You

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PODCAST: Traditional Medicare Part A for Hospital Coverage and Part B for Physician and Outpatient Services

UNDERSTAND AND KNOW THE DIFFERENCE

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Your thoughts are appreciated.

THANK YOU

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Are Today’s Doctors Desperate?

Emotions Rise with Healthcare Reform

By Dr. David Edward Marcinko; MBA, CMP™

[Publisher-in-Chief]

NOTE:  I penned this essay more than a decade ago.dem2

Managed care is a prospective payment method where medical care is delivered regardless of the quantity or frequency of service, for a fixed payment, in the aggregate. It is not traditional fee-for-service medicine or the individual personal care of the past, but is essentially utilitarian in nature and collective in intent. Will new-age healthcare reform be even more draconian?

Unhappy Physicians

There are many reasons why doctors are professionally and financially unhappy, some might even say desperate, because of managed care; not to mention the specter of healthcare reform from the Obama administration. For example:

  • A staggering medical student loan debt burden of $100,000-250,000 is not unusual for new practitioners. The federal Health Education Assistance Loan (HEAL) program reported that for the Year 2000, it squeezed significant repayment settlements from its Top 5 list of deadbeat doctor debtors. This included a $303,000 settlement from a New York dentist, $186,000 from a Florida osteopath, $158,000 from a New Jersey podiatrist, $128,000 from a Virginia podiatrist, and $120,000 from a Virginia dentist. The agency also excluded 303 practitioners from Medicare, Medicaid, and other federal healthcare programs and had their cases referred for nonpayment of debt.
  • Because of the flagging economy, medical school applications nationwide have risen. “Previously, there were a lot of different opportunities out there for young bright people”; according to Rachel Pentin-Maki; RN, MHA”; not so today. In fact, Physicians Practice Digest recently stated, “Medicine is fast becoming a job in which you work like a slave, eke out a middle class existence, and have patients, malpractice insurers, and payers questioning your motives.” Remarkably, the Cornell University School of Continuing Education has designed a program to give prospective medical school students a real-world peek, both good and bad.

The Ripple Effects of Managed Care and Reform

“Many people who are currently making a great effort and investment to become doctors may be heading for a role and a way of life that are fundamentally different from what they expect and desire,” according to Stephen Scheidt, MD, director of the $1,000 Cornell fee program; why?

  • Fewer fee-for-service patients and more discounted patients.
  • More paperwork and scrutiny of decisions with lost independence and morale.
  • Reputation equivalency (i.e., all doctors in the plan must be good), or commoditization (i.e., a doctor is a doctor is a doctor).
  • The provider is at risk for (a) utilization and acuity, (b) actuarial accuracy, (c) cost of delivering medical care, and (d) adverse patient selection.
  • Practice costs are increasing beyond the core rate of inflation.
  • Medicare reimbursements are continually cut.

Mad Obama

Early Opinions

Richard Corlin MD, opined back in 2002 that “these are circumstances that cannot continue because we are going to see medical groups disappearing.” Furthermore, he stated, “This is an emergency that lawmakers have to address.” Such cuts also stand to hurt physicians with private payers since commercial insurers often tie their reimbursement schedules to Medicare’s resources. “That’s the ripple effect here,” says Anders Gilberg, the Washington lobbyist for the Medical Group Management Associations (MGMA).

Assessment

And so, some desperate doctors are pursing these sources of relief, among many others:

  • A growing number of doctors are abandoning traditional medicine to start “boutique” practices that are restricted to patients who pay an annual retainer of $1,500 and up for preferred services and special attention. Franchises for the model are also available.
  • Regardless of location, the profession of medicine is no longer ego-enhancing or satisfying; some MDs retire early or leave the profession all together. Few recommend it, as a career anymore.

Assessment

To compound the situation, it is well known that doctors are notoriously poor investors and do not attend to their own personal financial well being, as they expertly minister to their patients’ physical illnesses.

Conclusion

And so, your thoughts and comments on this Medical Executive-Post are appreciated. Tell us what you think? Are you a desperate doctor? Feel free to review our top-left column, and top-right sidebar materials, links, URLs and related websites, too. Then, be sure to subscribe to the ME-P. It is fast, free and secure.

Link: http://feeds.feedburner.com/HealthcareFinancialsthePostForcxos 

References:

  1. www.managedcaremagazine.com/archives/9809/9809/.qna_dickey.shtml
  2. www.hrsa.dhhs.gov/news-pa/heal.htm
  3. www.bhpr.hrsa.gov/dsa/sfag/health-professions/bk1prt4.htm
  4. Pamela L. Moore, “Can We All Just Get Along: Bridging the Generation Gap, Physicians Practice Digest (May/June 2001).

Risk Management, Liability Insurance, and Asset Protection Strategies for Doctors and Advisors: Best Practices from Leading Consultants and Certified Medical Planners™8Comprehensive Financial Planning Strategies for Doctors and Advisors: Best Practices from Leading Consultants and Certified Medical Planners™

PODCAST: How Much Does Medicare Actually Pay Each Doctor?

Medicare Released Data on What It Paid To Each Doctor in America from 2012 to 2015 and the Wall Street Journal Compiled That Information Into an Amazing Searchable Database.

Texas CEO Magazine Eric Bricker 1 - SO 14 - Texas CEO Magazine

BY DR. ERIC BRICKER MD

The Findings:

1) Some Individual Doctors Were Paid Upwards of $5.8 Million Dollars by Medicare in Just a Single Year!

2) The Specialists That Charged Medicare the Most Tended to Be Vascular Surgeons, Ophthalmologists, Oncologists and Cardiologists.

Implications for Employer-Sponsored Health Plans:

1) Medicare Data Can Be Used to Identify High Volume Physicians and Surgeons.

2) The Highest-Costing Doctors Are Concentrated in a Relatively Small Number of Specialties That Can Be Targeted for Detailed Review, Feedback and Possible Exclusion/Steerage Away.

ASSESSMENT: Your thoughts and comments are appreciated.

Citation: https://www.r2library.com/Resource/Title/0826102549

THANK YOU

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PODCAST: The Future of Healthcare Looks to Medicare’s Past?

See the Future of Healthcare By Looking to Medicare’s Past

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Texas CEO Magazine 2016 Economic Forecast: Dallas - Texas ...

BY DR. ERIC BRICKER MD

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Desire for a Healthcare ‘Safety Net’ Goes Back Almost 100 years to President F.D.R. and His “New Deal

FDR Was Able to Pass Social Security, but He Also Wanted a Healthcare Safety Net Too.

Presidents Truman and Kennedy Also Wanted a Federally-Funded Healthcare Safety Net.

LBJ Carried the Torch of the Healthcare Safety Net. He Was Able to Have Medicare Legislation Passed in 1965 by Combining 3 Separate Proposals and Acts:

1) Hospital Insurance

2) Doctor Insurance That Was Voluntary

3) the State-Administered Kerr-Mills Act 

Hospital Insurance Became Medicare Part A. Doctor Insurance Became Medicare Part B. The Kerr-Mills Act Became Medicaid.

Presidents Carter and Clinton Also Wanted to Expand the Healthcare Safety Net. President Obama Expanded the Healthcare Safety Net with Passage of Obamacare. President Biden is Seeking to Expand the Healthcare Safety Net Too.

The Arc of Government-Funded Healthcare Stretches Back Almost 100 Years and Will Inevitably Result in the Full Government Payment for Healthcare in America.

It’s Not a Question of If, But When.

Implication: United Health Group is Making Many Acquisitions to Become a Vertically Integrated Healthcare Company to Position Itself as a Major Government Contractor for the Eventual Federal Takeover.

PODCAST: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OAh7Rl7w1wM

Your thoughts are appreciated.

THANK YOU

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PODCAST: Have You Received Your COVID-19 Vaccine, Yet?


Have you gotten your COVID-19 vaccine yet?

Haven’t gotten your COVID-19 vaccine yet? Now’s your chance! Find a COVID-19 vaccine provider near you quickly and easily with the redesigned Vaccines.gov website. Vaccines.gov COVID-19 vaccines are the best way to protect yourself and your loved ones from COVID-19 — and an important tool to help us get back to normal.

And remember, the vaccine is available at no cost to you at doctor’s offices, clinics, hospitals and retail pharmacies across the country.

Already vaccinated? That’s great! Visit CDC.gov to see the activities you can do safely when you’ve been fully vaccinated.
"I got mine. Be next." with smiling woman image. Linked to video.

PLAY PODCAST VIDEO: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6aPihNXV_wQ#utm_campaign=20210519_cvd_prv_gal_v1&utm_content=english&utm_medium=email&utm_source=govdelivery

Note: Bring your red, white, and blue Medicare card (or Medicare Number) when you go to get your vaccine.

Sincerely,

The Medicare Team

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Medicare Buy-In Policies for Older Adults on Health Insurance Coverage and Health Care Spending

RESEARCH REPORT

The Effects of Medicare Buy-In Policies for Older Adults on Health Insurance Coverage and Health Care Spending

  • Bowen Garrett
  • Jessica Banthin
  • Anuj Gangopadhyaya
  • Matthew Buettgens
  • Adele Shartzer
  • John Holahan
  • Diane Arnos

December2020 (corrected February 2021)

LINK:

https://www.urban.org/sites/default/files/publication/103348/the-effects-of-medicare-buy-in-policies-for-older-adults-on-health-insurance-coverage-and-health-care-spending.pdf#:~:text=The%20Effects%20of%20Medicare%20Buy-In%20Policies%20for%20Older,Medicare%20to%20purchase%20a%20Medicare-like%20health%20insurance%20plan.

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Medicare Cuts by Physician Specialty

Medicare cuts by specialty 1/1/2021

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Product DetailsProduct Details

Gap Between Private Insurance and Medicare Hospital Payments Increased in 2018

Click to access PAYMENT.pdf

 

 

RACIAL DISPARIETIES AMONGT MEDICARE BENEFICIARIES

AT HIGH-PERFORMANCE HOSPITALS

By http://www.MCOL.com

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The Middle Class Cost of M-4-A

Medicare for All

By Rick Kahler MSFS CFP

The concept of “Medicare for All” is getting a lot of attention in the 2020 Presidential race. Senator Elizabeth Warren’s promise that it will not cost the middle-class “one penny” has much appeal.

While most Americans support providing free medical care to those who need it most, making it with no additional cost to the middle class would be something never before accomplished by any country that has universal health care. The middle class in those countries pay income taxes of up to 40% and a national sales tax equivalent of 15% to 25%.

Recently, Senator Warren revealed how she will finance her plan. She estimates the cost over a decade at $20 trillion in new federal spending. Estimates by six independent financial organizations are higher, ranging from $28 trillion to $36 trillion.

Here are some of the general provisions of her plan.

1.                            She would tax both employers and employees an amount equivalent to what they currently pay in health insurance premiums. This will bring in $11 trillion.

2.                            She would increase taxes on the top 1% of individuals and large corporations to generate $7 trillion.

3.                            The balance of the money needed, $2 to $18 trillion (depending on whether you believe Ms. Warren’s numbers or the other six independent estimates) would come from new-found efficiencies, tax enforcement, and reductions in wasteful spending. There is widespread doubt that this is even remotely possible.

A Forbes article describing the tax increases aimed at wealthy individuals caught my attention. These increases include:

·                                 Adding a wealth tax of 2% to 6% on household net worth above $50 million

·                                 Eliminating the favorable tax rate on capital gains

·                                 Increasing the “Obamacare” tax from 3.8% to 14.8% on net investment income above $250,000

·                                 Eliminating the step-up in basis for inheritors

·                                 Increasing the salary subject to Social Security from $132,900 to $250,000

·                                 Lowering the estate tax exemption from $12 million to $7 million

·                                 Establishing a financial transaction tax of 0.10%.

The capital gains tax increase, the step-up in basis, and the financial transaction tax will all affect middle class investors, potentially including anyone with a 401(k) or an IRA. The American Retirement Association estimates that the financial transaction tax alone will cost the average 401k and IRA investor over $1,500 a year.

Diann Howland, vice president of legislative affairs at the American Benefits Council, cited in an article in InvestmentNews, called the proposal “not a great thing to do to the middle class.”

The 0.1% financial transaction tax is more damaging than it might seem at first glance. It applies to all the securities sold and purchased within a mutual fund or ETF, as well as the purchase and sale of the funds by investors. By my calculations it can easily add a cost of 0.20% to 0.30% a year to every fund investment. Given that some index mutual funds only charge 0.10% in total expenses, that’s a cost increase of 200% to 300%.

Eliminating the step-up in basis on inheritances and the favorable capital gains tax rate will also affect the middle class. According to a 2013 survey by HSBC Bank, retirees expected to leave their heirs an average of $177,000. If the average basis is one-half of what’s inherited, the elimination of step-up in basis and capital gains tax will cost middle class inheritors $10,000 to $20,000 more in taxes.

Senator Warren’s proposed tax increases will affect the middle class as well as the wealthy. They also fall short of covering the estimated cost of her plan. Assuming, then, that Medicare for All could be implemented with no increase in federal income or sales taxes for the middle class may well be a pipe dream.

Conclusion

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Medicare for All?

Taxes for All?

[By Rick Kakler CFP®]

As the recent debates among the Democratic presidential candidates emphasized, the idea of government-managed health care is gaining popularity. “Medicare for all” or some form of “free” universal health care is certainly an appealing idea. Who among us wouldn’t appreciate someone else paying our medical bills?

I certainly would. My family’s personal health care costs, including premiums and out-of-pocket expenses, run just over $3,000 a month. If my health care were free, I could find a lot of uses for the savings.

But my skeptical side, and probably yours as well, knows that there is no such thing as a free medical procedure. Someone, by some means, has to pay for insurance coverage, doctor visits, hospitalizations, and other medical costs.

The tax tab for providing “Medicare for all,” as envisioned by Sen. Bernie Sanders, is $3 trillion a year, according to several analysts. Currently, the cost for Medicare is about one-sixth that amount, or $583 billion a year.

Sanders and other presidential candidates tell us the wealthy will pay this tab. The reality is that when we look at other countries that have similar universal health care plans, it isn’t just the wealthy that are paying for it.

Raising the more than $3 trillion needed annually to fund “Medicare for all” would require doubling all personal and corporate income taxes or tripling payroll taxes. This analysis comes from Marc Goldwein, a senior vice president at the non-partisan Committee for a Responsible Federal Budget. He was cited in a May 9, 2019, Bloomberg article by Laura Davison, “Tax hikes on wealthy alone can’t pay for Medicare for all plan.” “There is a lot of money out there, but there isn’t $30 trillion [over 10 years] sitting around from high earners,” Goldwein said. “It just doesn’t exist.”

I did a little investigating of the tax rates of European countries that have universal health care and found Goldwein’s statement to be true. For example, Denmark taxes income over $7,000, with rates starting at 40%. The US rate starts at 10%. This would indicate a doubling or tripling of income taxes or payroll taxes on the lowest earners is not a politically-skewed scare tactic, but an economic reality.

The top rate in Denmark is 56%, while the top rate in the US is 50% (37% federal and 13% state). This is just one of many examples I found in my searching that strongly indicate other countries that have universal health care haven’t found much room left to tax the wealthy. Based on their experience, the majority of the cost will need to come from lower income earners.

Sadly, this message is not being disseminated to voters by proponents of universal health care. While I am not advocating for or against universal health care here, I am advocating for full disclosure and transparency.

A topic as significant as this deserves a great deal of discussion based on clear, complete disclosure of facts and educated analysis. It requires the best available answers to questions like who will be covered, what will be covered, how much the program will cost, and who will pay for it.

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Assessment

Raising six times what we are currently spending for Medicare would be a huge task. Transferring one-eighth of the US economy from the private sector pocket to the public sector one would not be easy or painless. Making the transition to some form of tax-funded universal health care would be a major shift in direction for this country that would have a significant impact on all Americans. It is not a decision to make based on inadequate information, political rhetoric, or unreasonably optimistic assumptions.

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Risk Management, Liability Insurance, and Asset Protection Strategies for Doctors and Advisors: Best Practices from Leading Consultants and Certified Medical Planners™8Comprehensive Financial Planning Strategies for Doctors and Advisors: Best Practices from Leading Consultants and Certified Medical Planners™

[Foreword Dr. Krieger MD MBA]

 Foreword by Jason Dyken MD MBA

Book of Month

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More Changes to Medicare for Doctors

More Changes to Medicare

By Ira Nash MD

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On Medicare Bureaucratization

Isn’t limited to governments

By Rick Kahler MS CFP®

A client recently told me about her first medical checkup after becoming eligible for Medicare. “The doctor said things like, ‘They require us to fill out this form,’ and ‘This test is covered every three years, so we can’t do it this year,’ and ‘Medicare will pay for a baseline EKG even though you have no history of heart disease.’ I’ve gone to this doctor for ten years. I’m the same person I was a year ago. Yet it felt as if I had moved to a category where the appointment was all about the paperwork instead of my health. ”

A situation like this, where the paperwork seems more important than the person, demonstrates something I call the Principle of Bureaucratization: the idea that the more layers of decision-making are added to an organization, the less efficient it becomes in delivering its goods or services.

While this phenomenon affects organizations and governments of all sizes, the negative outcomes seem to increase the larger a company becomes or the further away the seat of government is from its constituents. Municipal services seem to be delivered more efficiently than state services. State services tend to be more efficient that those coming from the federal government. There are some exceptions, but not many.

One reason is that the further removed from you the decision-maker is, the less personal the services will be. Moving from the private health care system to the government-run health care system called Medicare is just one example. The same principle seems to apply in other countries. I have visited the UK numerous times, and it seems that every time I’ve read a newspaper article about some specific failing of the NHS (National Health Service). Just recently, at a workshop in Europe, a participant from the UK told me that the waiting list to see a psychiatrist was one year. “The NHS simply works against you,” she said with exasperation.

I think most Americans can agree that our healthcare system is badly flawed. We may disagree on the causes and cures. I see as one major problem that our federal government has created a regulatory structure which allows a select number of health insurance and pharmaceutical companies control over the health care system. These regulations have sent insurance costs soaring by almost eliminating competition. Third-party payment of medical bills means those receiving the services don’t have any incentive to even ask about costs.

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Bureaucratization isn’t limited to governments. It also affects large companies where the policies are made by people many layers away from the customers, and the employees dealing with customers don’t have the authority to make decisions or solve problems. Who hasn’t experienced having a seemingly easy problem to solve with a service provider, calling a customer service representative, and ending up on the phone for 45 minutes being passed from department to department and supervisor to supervisor?

Many employees of large firms and governments are equally frustrated by the bureaucracy created in their organizations. Bureaucratic organizations stagnate innovation and responsiveness. They are especially inefficient when those dealing directly with consumers don’t have any significant consequences riding on the quality of the goods or services provided. This is one reason why many, like Brian Robertson in his book Holacracy, believe the “best practices” governance model for organizations is a self-organizing structure that empowers employees closest to consumers to make decisions.

What’s the bottom line?

You’re ultimately responsible for your own well-being. Ask questions, be the squeaky wheel, and, above all, make connections with those working in the bureaucracies you deal with. Help them keep in mind that their purpose is to serve people, not paperwork. 

Conclusion

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Hospital Re-Admissions Trends

For Medicare

By http://www.MCOL.com

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Financial “Planning” versus “Preparing”

Understanding the Difference

By Rick Kahler CFP®

Retirement planning is one of the issues that commonly lead clients to consult financial advisers.

One of its essential aspects is creating a plan to save and invest in order to provide a comfortable retirement income. Ideally, this starts many years ahead of retirement, even as early as your first paycheck.

As retirement comes closer, planning for it expands to take in a host of other considerations, such as deciding when to retire, where to live, and what kind of lifestyle you hope to have. When retirement becomes a reality, the focus shifts to carrying out the plan.

Preparing

All of this planning is crucial. Yet, for both financial advisers and clients, it’s good to keep in mind that planning has its limits. In the post-retirement years, it may be helpful to think in terms of preparing for old age rather than planning for it.

The older we get, the more important this distinction between planning and preparing becomes. Too many life-changing things can happen without regard to our best-laid plans. Often they occur unexpectedly, resulting in emergency situations where urgent decisions have to be made. A stroke or a fall, a diagnosis of terminal illness, a broken hip that leaves someone unable to go back to independent living—and suddenly, right now, the family needs to find an assisted living facility, arrange for live-in help, or sell a home.

What are some of the ways to prepare for these contingencies?

  1. Explore housing options well ahead of time. Find out what assisted living, home care, and nursing home services and facilities are available where you live and whether they have waiting lists. Have family conversations about possibilities like relocating or sharing households:
  2. Research the financial side of these options. Investigate the cost of hiring help at home, assisted living facilities, and nursing care centers. Find out what is and is not covered by Medicare and long-term care insurance. For example, people are sometimes surprised to learn that Medicare does not pay for nursing home care other than short-term medical stays.
  3. Designate someone to take over decision-making, and do the paperwork. Execute documents like a living will, medical power of attorney, and contingent power of attorney. Update them as necessary, and give copies to your doctors, your financial planner, and appropriate family members.
  4. Start relatively early to downsize. Well before you’re ready to let go of possessions or move into smaller housing, start considering what to do with your “stuff.” Focus on the decisions rather than the distribution. There’s no need to get rid of possessions prematurely, but decide what you want to do with them—and put in writing. Do this while it’s still your choice, rather than something your family members do while you’re in the hospital or nursing home
  5. Do your best to practice flexibility and acceptance. No matter how strongly you want to live in your own home until the end of your life, for example, it may not be possible. The physical limitations of aging can limit our choices, and even the best options available may not be what we would like them to be. It is a profound gift to yourself and your family members to accept these realities with as much grace as you can muster.

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Assessment

Finally, please don’t underestimate the importance of planning financially for retirement. Because the bottom line is that you can’t plan for all the things that might happen as you age, but you can prepare to deal with them. One of the most useful tools to cope with those contingencies is having enough money.

Conclusion

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PP-ACA Change or Repeal for 2017?

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Potential Component Changes

By http://www.MCOL.com

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infographic

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MORE: Podcast: Third Quarter Health Plan Financial Reports

Conclusion

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Tom Price for HHS Secretary & Seema Verma for CMMS

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Obamacare critic for HHS 

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112_price_ga06

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Trump nominates Rep. Tom Price for HHS secretary

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th

Trump picks Seema Verma to head Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services

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Product DetailsProduct Details

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Find Your Doctor’s Payments

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FBF300BA-321A-49FD-9289-0DE0AD63DCE5

 CMS’ Open Payments Program Posts 2015 Financial Data

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 The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) has published the 2015 Open Payments (sometimes called the “Sunshine Act”) data, along with newly submitted and updated payment records for 2013 and 2014, at https://openpaymentsdata.cms.gov.
The Open Payments program requires that transfers of value by drug, device, biological, and medical supply manufacturers to physicians and teaching hospitals be published on a public website.
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physician investors

Portrait of two surgeons in a operating room viewing paper charts.

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Assessment
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In program year 2015, healthcare industry manufacturers reported $7.52 billion in payments and ownership and investment interests to physicians and teaching hospitals. This amount is comprised of 11.90 million total records attributable to 618,931 physicians and 1,116 teaching hospitals. To find out what any doctor received in 2015, click here.
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Conclusion
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Are you Being “Admitted” to the Hospital?

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OR … just “Observed”?

Brian J. Knabe MD

By Brian J. Knabe, MD, CMP©, CFP®

Savant Capital Management

cmp-logo16

http://www.CertifiedMedicalPlanner.org

Much attention has been given in recent months to the unintended consequences of healthcare rules and laws.  Most of this has centered on the Affordable Care Act—employers discontinuing health plans for their employees, individuals being dropped from their privately purchased insurance, and other ill effects.  One subject that has not received much press, but which may affect many seniors, is changing rules for Medicare.

Medicare

Patients usually assume when they spend a night or more in a hospital that they have been “admitted.”  However, this is often not the case.  Medicare regulations and statutes require physicians and hospitals to predict at the time of initial hospitalization how long a patient will stay in the hospital.

A short stay—for a night or two– is classified as “observation,” while a longer stay can be classified as an “admission.”  While the difference between these may not be a primary concern for a sick patient wanting to receive necessary evaluation and treatment, it can make a significant difference for your pocketbook.

Observation status

Observation status is considered “outpatient” treatment, and as such can expose Medicare patients to unexpected expenses.  As outpatients, visits under observation status are not covered under Medicare Part A, which pays for hospital charges above a $1,184 deductible.  These outpatient services are billed under Medicare Part B, which requires patients to pay 20% of the cost and imposes no cap on their total out-of-pocket expenditures.

Moreover, observation patients must pay out of pocket for the medication they receive in the hospital.  Those with Medicare Part D prescription-drug plans can file claims for reimbursement, but they may receive little or no refund if their Part D plan doesn’t cover those specific medications.

SNF

Another unexpected consequence of hospital observation is subsequent nursing home coverage.  A stay in a Skilled Nursing Facility (SNF) is often covered by Medicare, as long as certain criteria are met.  One of those criteria is whether the SNF stay was preceded by a “qualifying hospital stay.”  An admission to a hospital might meet this criterion, but an observation stay will not, even if it extended for a number of days.  When a patient who meets Medicare’s admission requirement moves to a SNF, the program covers 100 percent of the first 20 days.  Patients are responsible for $152 daily co-pays for the next 80 days, if necessary.  On the other hand, patients leaving the hospital for a SNF after an observation stay pay the full cost out of pocket.

WSJ

According to a recent Wall Street Journal article, from 2004 to 2011 the number of observation services administered per Medicare beneficiary rose by almost 34%, while admissions per beneficiary declined 7.8%.  Why does this difference between admission and observation matter to hospitals?  It comes down to payment.  Hospitals are reimbursed less for outpatient services.  However, if it is determined after a hospitalization that a patient should have been kept under observation rather than admitted, Medicare will often deny payment to the hospital for the entire bill.  So hospitals are motivated to get it right, at least according to Medicare regulations.

hospital bills

What  to Do?

So, what can you do to protect yourself as a patient?  At the time of hospitalization, ask your physician whether you are being admitted or kept under observation.  Ask to speak to a case manager about the proper status of the hospital stay.  Ask your doctors if they suspect that rehabilitation services will be needed after the hospitalization, and if so, request their help in getting the decision to “observe” reversed prior to hospital discharge.

Assessment

For additional help, see the “Self Help Packet for Medicare Observation Status” at www.medicareadvocacy.org.

See more at: https://www.savantcapital.com/blog/are-you-being-admitted-to-the-hospital-or-just-observed/#sthash.EOOiPWOA.dpuf 

Conclusion

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Sherlock Health Administration Expense Benchmarks Invitation

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Sherlock Benchmarks – Participation and Licensing

By Douglas B. Sherlock CFA

sherlock@sherlockco.com

thoughtSherlockHello All ME-P Readers and Subscribers:

This email invites your participation and/or licensing of the Sherlock Benchmarks.

A central effect of the Affordable Care Act is to sharply increase the incentive for health plans to minimize their administrative expenses. The Sherlock Benchmarks can be a catalyst to respond to these incentives since they identify and prioritize cost variances.

Use of the Sherlock Benchmarks reflects this:

• At least 40 health plans serving at least 40 million people with health insurance are so far committed as participants in this year’s Sherlock Benchmarking study.

• Of the 36 U.S. – based Blue Cross Blue Shield primary licensees, one-half are participating in this year’s Sherlock Benchmarking Study, either as an enterprise or through a subsidiary.

• Of the 13 members of the Alliance of Community Health Plans that are not focused on public programs or are staff-model plans, 11 are participating in this year’s Sherlock Benchmarking Study for Independent / Provider – Sponsored Health Plans.

• Most of the largest members of the Health Plan Alliance that are not focused on public programs are participating in this year’s Sherlock Benchmarking Study for Independent / Provider – Sponsored Health Plans.

• Health plans serving at least one-half of all insured Americans are licensed users of Sherlock Benchmarks since January 1, 2015.

Licensing and participation is available to all health plans

We have recently launched the Independent / Provider – Sponsored and Blue Cross Blue Shield surveys. There is still time, but the financial metrics survey form must be returned to us by the end of April.

So please contact me immediately if you wish to join these robust panels.

Our universes of Medicaid and Medicare plans will launch in a few months to avoid conflict with your Medicare bid process. If a plurality of your members are in either Medicare or Medicaid, please contact us about participation. Note that all costs are segmented by product as well as by function to assure an apples-to-apples comparison between the plans.

Licensing is available without participation. Licensing costs more but it entails less effort.  The 2016 Sherlock Benchmarks for Blue Cross Blue Shield Plans and Independent / Provider – Sponsored plans will be available beginning in July. The 2016 Sherlock Benchmarks for Medicare plans and Medicaid plans will be available beginning in September. 

Assessment

We look forward to working with you.

Conclusion

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Medical Provider Billing Facts for 2014

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A Look at Medicare Spending

By http://www.MCOL.com

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billing

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Conclusion

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[Foreword Dr. Phillips MD JD MBA LLM] *** [Foreword Dr. Nash MD MBA FACP]

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CMS Home Health Agencies

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Star Ratings

By http://www.MCOL.com

MEDICARE @ 50 [1965-2015]

ImageProxy

More videos:

Conclusion

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David Belk MD Announces New Website [True Cost of Healthcare.net]

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A Site Re-Design

belk[By David Belk MD]

Here’s the new website with a whole new look that’s been redesigned by Modern Creations: http://truecostofhealthcare.org

There are three new sections:

The first is a study of the prices of brand name medications. It shows that the price pharmacies in the US pay for brand name drugs have gone up an average of 40% in 2 1/2 years. That’s about 18 times the rate of inflation.

The other two new pages examine Medicare supplemental policies as well as Part D and Advantage programs:

The page on supplemental policies is an expansion of the blog I wrote 2 years ago on the subject. It answers just about any question you might have about what Medicare covers and how much you would expect to pay if you have Medicare and need medical treatment

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 David Belk, M.D., Announces New Website

hospital bills

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Assessment

Feel free to tell me what you think of it. Also, I’m sending this message from my new email address – truecostofhealthcare@gmail.com

Conclusion

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“Navigating a course where sound organizational management is intertwined with financial acumen requires a strategy designed by subject-matter experts. Fortunately, Financial Management Strategies for Hospital and Healthcare Organizations: Tools, Techniques, Checklists and Case Studies provides that blueprint”

 —David B. Nash MD MBA Jefferson Medical College, Thomas Jefferson University, PA

On Medicare Advantage Plan[s] Enrollment

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Medicare Pre-Paid Enrollee Composition

By http://www.MCOL.com

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medicare advantage

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NOTE: CMS Releases 2013 Hospital, Physician Data

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The opening of this week’s Health Datapalooza conference in Washington was the setting for a new Medicare data dump on physician and hospital inpatient/outpatient payment and utilization rates. This is the third annual release of data as part of the Obama administration’s information transparency initiative to promote increased quality of care and more informed healthcare spending by consumers. A link to the inpatient dataset is here, the outpatient dataset is here, and the physician / supplier dataset is here.

Source: Joseph Goedert, Health Data Management [6/2/15]

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Conclusion

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How Much Did Your Doctor Receive From Medicare?

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From Medicare Part B in 2012

By http://www.nytimes.com

Use the form below to find a doctor or other medical professional among the more than 800,000 health care providers that received payments in 2012 from Medicare Part B, which covers doctor visits, tests and other treatments.

You will need to know the medical providers’ name, specialty and/or zip code.

***

David MD MBA

***

LINK:

http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2014/04/09/health/medicare-doctor-database.html?_r=0

Source: The information presented here is from a database released by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. The database excluded, for privacy reasons, any procedures that a doctor performed on 11 or fewer patients. The total reimbursements for each doctor does not include those procedures either. Results shown above include only the individuals like doctors, nurses or technicians but not organizations like Walgreens. While some providers could have multiple offices, the address shown is the main address indicated in the database. Descriptions of the procedures are from the American Medical Association.

More:

Conclusion

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Hospital Information Systems and the PP-ACA

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Extension of Hospital Information Systems Beyond the Hospital

By Brent A. Metfessel MD

Dr. MetfesselThe Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA), affirmed after the November 7th 2012 presidential election, includes a number of policies and potential projects with the aim of improving quality of care while reducing costs – or at least greatly slowing increases in health care costs from year to year.

Included in this effort are CMS payment incentives for providers that can show care patterns that meet the goals of high quality, cost-efficient care.

HHS and ACOs 

On March 31, 2011, the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) released a set of proposed new rules to aid clinicians, hospitals, and other health facilities and providers to improve coordination of care for Medicare patients using a model known as Accountable Care Organizations (ACOs). ACOs that are shown to lower health care cost growth while meeting CMS quality benchmarks, including measures of patient/caregiver experience of care, care coordination, patient safety, preventive health, and health of high-risk populations, will receive incentive payments as part of the Medicare Shared Savings Program.

But, in some proposed models ACOs may also be held accountable for shared losses.

Care Co-ordination

Coordination of care means that hospitals, physician offices, and other providers have a complete record of patients’ episodes of care, including diagnostic tests, procedures, and medication information.  This potentially would decrease extra costs from unnecessary duplication of services as well as reducing medical errors from incomplete understanding of the patients’ illness histories and medical care provided.

It is also believed that better coordination of care may prevent 30-day hospital readmissions (which occur for nearly one in five Medicare discharges), since needed post-discharge care would be more readily obtainable with more aggressive care coordination.

Medicare patients in ACOs, however, would still be allowed to see providers outside of the ACO, and proposals exist to prevent physicians in ACOs from being penalized for patients with a greater illness severity or complexity.

According to a CMS analysis, ACOs may result in Medicare savings of up to $960 million over three years.  Although the Affordable Care Act’s ACO provisions primarily target Medicare beneficiaries, private insurers are also beginning to create care models based on the accountable care paradigm.  Insurers could offer similar incentives to the ACO model described above, and which might include features such as performance based contracting or tiered benefit models that favor physicians who score highly on care quality and cost-efficiency measures.

Balance

Only the Beginning

ACOs and other implementations of the accountable care paradigm, however, are in their beginning stages, with a number of pilots around the country currently being conducted to more fully evaluate the concept, and there still is some controversy over the best way to achieve these goals. It is a continuing balancing act.

The critical point here is that in all likelihood, with the advent of the ACA and other initiatives, stemming the upward tide of medical cost increases becomes an even higher priority, and no matter what the final models will look like, the success of any of the models requires a high level of care coordination – requiring information systems that are fully compatible and allow seamless and errorless transmission of information between sites of service and the various providers that can be involved in patient care.

More:

  1. Ground Breaking Book Explains Why Accountable Care Organizations May Be the Answer the Health Care Industry Has Been Seeking!
  2. Evaluating ACOs at Mid-Launch
  3. How Using a ‘Scorecard’ Can Smooth Your Hospital’s Transition to a Population Health-Based Reimbursement Model
  4. Doubting the Accountable Care Organization B-Model

Assessment

Thus, wherever a patient goes for care, all the information needed to provide high-quality and cost-efficient care is immediately available.

References

Feds Take Critical Look at Meaningful Use Payments”, InformationWeek Healthcare, October 24, 2012.  http://www.informationweek.com/healthcare/policy/feds-take-critical-look-at-meaningful-us/240009661 [Accessed on November 2, 2012].

Conclusion

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How to Transition into Medicare?

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The Timing, Costs, and Factors to Know

By Lon Jefferies MBA CFP® http://www.NewWorthAdvice.com

Lon JeffriesDid you know that the choices you make during your first year of Medicare eligibility will have long-term financial consequences? Yes, it is true!

And unfortunately, most people and even medical professionals have to make these decisions at a time when they are only beginning to familiarize themselves with a complex program.

The Rules

If you don’t follow Medicare’s enrollment rules, you may pay lifelong penalties for coverage. You have a seven-month window to enroll in Medicare as you turn 65. This window begins three months before the month of your birthday, includes the month of your birthday, and continues for the following three months.

The Parts

Part A

In most cases, you should sign up for Medicare Part A, which covers hospital stays, when you turn 65, even if you have other health insurance coverage. There is no cost for this coverage as long as you have 40 quarters of work in which you paid FICA taxes.

However, be aware that you are not allowed to contribute to a health savings account (HSA) if you are receiving benefits from Medicare. Thus, you may want to defer beginning Part A to continue building up your HSA balance to help offset future healthcare costs not covered by Medicare.

Part B

Medicare Part B covers services and supplies that are needed to diagnose or treat medical conditions, and health care to prevent illness. The standard monthly premium for Part B in 2013 is $104.90, but individuals with a modified adjusted gross income (MAGI) more than $85,000 and couples with a MAGI more than $170,000 pay more.

The premium ranges from $146.90 to $335.70 for those with incomes above the thresholds. If you have group health insurance through your own or a spouse’s employer, you may want to delay beginning Part B.

However, for this to be done without penalty, be sure to enroll in Part B coverage within eight months of the time your employment ceases. Otherwise, for every 12-month period that you could have been enrolled in Medicare Part B but were not, you will pay a 10 percent penalty on your Part B premium for life.

Part D

Medicare Part D covers prescription drugs. This coverage is usually purchased at the same time as Part B.  Part D monthly premiums vary by plan. However, higher-income beneficiaries (singles with a MAGI over $85,000 and couples with a MAGI over $170,000) pay from $11.60 to $66.60 more each month.

There is also a late enrollment penalty for Part D that is one percent of the “national base beneficiary premium” ($31.17 in 2013) multiplied by the number of full months you went without drug coverage.

Part C

Note that Medicare Part C is not a separate benefit. Part C, sometimes referred to as a Medicare Advantage Plan [MAP], is the portion of Medicare that allows private health insurance companies to provide Medicare benefits.

Part C is an alternative method for obtaining the same coverage that Part A and Part B provide, but do so through private insurance providers with different rules, costs and coverage restrictions. You can also get Part D as part of the benefits package if you choose. Although significant research is required, determining whether Part C is a viable option for you is simply a matter of considering your health, the medical services you use regularly, your prescription drug medications, and your budget.

medicare

Assessment

Medicare is a complex program. Enrolling on time and making informed decisions about coverage can save you thousands of dollars each year during retirement.

Conclusion

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Some US Federal Budget Proposals

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Government Shutdown Hoopla for Retirees, Inheritors and Savers

By Rick Kahler CFP® http://www.KahlerFinancial.com

Rick Kahler CFPLost in the hoopla over the government shutdown, defunding Obamacare, and raising the debt ceiling are some proposals contained in President Obama’s budget that will have a significant impact on retirees, inheritors, and savers.

Most of the President’s proposals are aimed at enforcing higher taxes on savers who maximize their retirement plans. This is a way to raise revenue for government entitlement programs, like subsidies for health insurance, Medicare, and Social Security.

Retirement and Retirees

Back from last year is his proposal to cap contributions to IRA’s and 401(k)’s when the balance reaches a level determined by a set formula which is tied to interest rates. The proposal sets the cap at $3.4 million initially. As interest rates rise, the cap will lower. When a saver’s IRA balance hits the cap, he or she will not be allowed to make further contributions to any retirement plan.

This will mostly affect savers who terminate employment and roll large accumulations from profit-sharing plans and lump-sum distributions from defined benefit plans into their IRA’s. It will shut down their ability to save into the future.

Taxes and Inheritors

The President has yet another plan to end tax-deductible contributions for upper income earners. Only 28% of a contribution would be deductible for any taxpayer whose bracket exceeds 28%. For a taxpayer in the highest bracket, this means a tax increase of about 50%.

Another of the President’s proposals would end the ability of anyone other than a spouse to inherit a tax-deferred IRA. Under the proposal, all non-spouses inheriting an IRA would have five years to terminate the IRA and pay income taxes on the distributions. This proposal really impacts Roth IRA conversions, as most parents convert traditional IRA’s to Roths with the intention of leaving their children a non-taxable sum of money that can continue to grow tax free during their lifetime. If the President’s proposal passes, many older savers will discover that the intentions behind their Roth conversions have been nullified.

Forced Savings and Savers

While President Obama wants to cap what successful savers can stash away in retirement plans, he also wants to force employees to save for retirement. Employers will be required to open IRA’s for every employee and to fund the plan at a minimum of 3% of the employee’s pay, unless the employee specifically opts out. The employee can contribute more than 3%, up to the $5,000 cap for those under 50 and $6,000 for those over 50.

Of course, savvy savers and ME-P readers know most of us need to be saving 20% to 50% of our salaries, depending on our ages, so saving just 3% of pay won’t amount to much in the way of retirement income.

Good News

On the positive side, the President wants to end required minimum distributions on IRA balances under $75,000. This will reduce some paperwork for savers with smaller IRA’s who are not making withdrawals.

Typically, most retirees with small IRA’s are those with less savings anyway, who need to take withdrawals from their IRA’s to make ends meet. So it’s doubtful this rule change will have much impact.

Finally, the President proposes letting inherited non-spousal IRA’s enjoy the same benefit of a 60-day rollover window on any distribution, similar to what they can do with a non-inherited IRA. This will simply eliminate a lot of confusion, as most people don’t understand the 60-day rollover provision does not include inherited IRA’s.

Shutdown[US Federal Government Shut-Down]

Assessment

Of course, whether any or all of these proposals make it into law is anyone’s guess. Anyone whose retirement and estate planning includes saving in IRA’s will want to keep an eye on these provisions as the budget moves through Congress.

Conclusion

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Doubting the Accountable Care Organization B-Model

New Healthcare Business Model or Edsel Model?

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By David Edward Marcinko MBA http://www.CertifiedMedicalPlanner.org

[Publisher-in-Chief]

Dr. Marcinko with ME-P FansDefined by Professor Michael Porter at Harvard Business School, value is defined as a function of outcomes and costs. Therefore to achieve high value we must deliver the best possible outcomes in the most efficient way, outcomes which matter from the perspective of the individual receiving healthcare and not provider process measures or targets.

Sir Muir Gray expanded on the idea of technical value (outcomes/costs) to specifically describe ‘personal value’ and ‘allocative value’, encouraging us to focus also on shared decision making, individual preferences for care and ensuring that resources are allocated for maximum value.

Healthcare Value and ACOs

According to our Medical Executive-Post Health Dictionary Series of administrative terms http://www.HealthDictionarySeries.org  and health economist and colleague Robert James Cimasi MHA, ASA, AVA CMP™ of www.HealthCapital.com; an ACO is a healthcare organization in which a set of providers, usually large physician groups and hospitals, are held accountable for the cost and quality of care delivered to a specific local population.

ACOs aim to affect provider’s patient expenditures and outcomes by integrating clinical and administrative departments to coordinate care and share financial risk.

ACO Launch

Since their four-page introduction in the PP-ACA of 2010, ACOs have been implemented in both the Federal and commercial healthcare markets, with 32 Pioneer ACOs selected (on December 19, 2011), 116 Federal applications accepted (on April 10, 2012 and July 9, 2012), and at least 160 or more Commercial ACOs in existence today.

Federal Contracts

Federal ACO contracts are established between an ACO and CMS, and are regulated under the CMS Medicare Shared Savings Program (MSSP) Final Rule, published November 2, 2011.  ACOs participating in the MSSP are accountable for the health outcomes, represented by 33 quality metrics, and Medicare beneficiary expenditures of a prospectively assigned population of Medicare beneficiaries.

If a Federal ACO achieves Medicare beneficiary expenditures below a CMS established benchmark (and meets quality targets), they are eligible to receive a portion of the achieved Medicare beneficiary expenditure savings, in the form of a shared savings payment.

Commercial Contracts

Commercial ACO contracts are not limited by any specific legislation, only by the contract between the ACO and a commercial payor.

In addition to shared savings models, Commercial ACOs may incentivize lower costs and improved patient outcomes through reimbursement models that share risk between the payor and the providers, i.e., pay for performance compensation arrangements and/or partial to full capitation.

Although commercial ACOs experience a greater degree of flexibility in their structure and reimbursement, the principals for success for both Federal ACOs and Commercial ACOs are similar.

###

Eidsel

Dr. David E. Marcinko with 1960 Ford Edsel

[© iMBA, Inc. All rights reserved, USA.]

[The Edsel was an automobile marque that was planned, developed, and manufactured by the Ford Motor Company during the 1958, 1959, and 1960 model years. With the Edsel, Ford had expected to make significant inroads into the market share of both General Motors and Chrysler and close the gap between itself and GM in the domestic American automotive market. But, contrary to Ford’s internal plans and projections, the Edsel never gained popularity with contemporary American car buyers and sold poorly. The Ford Motor Company lost millions of dollars on the Edsel’s development, manufacturing and marketing].

More:

 

Update

Junking the Merit-Based Incentive Payment System (MIPS) would undoubtedly let the proverbial air out of the MACRA balloon, dealing a significant blow to the value-based reimbursement shift; right?

Assessment

Although nearly any healthcare enterprise can integrate and become an ACO, larger enterprises, may be best suited for ACO status.

Larger organizations are more able to accommodate the significant capital requirements of ACO development, implementation, and operation (e.g., healthcare information technology), and sustain the sufficient number of beneficiaries to have a significant impact on quality and cost metrics.

Conclusion

But, will this new B-Model work? Isn’t leading doctors in a shared collaborative effort a bit like herding cats? And, what about patients, HIEs, outcomes management, data analytics and … Population Health via our colleague David B. Nash MD MBA of Thomas Jefferson University, often considered the “father” of Pop Health?

OR, what about the developing IRS scandal and full PP-ACA launch in 2014? Will it affect federal funding, full roll-out, or even repeal of the entire Act?

Your thoughts and comments on this ME-P are appreciated. Feel free to review our top-left column, and top-right sidebar materials, links, URLs and related websites, too. Then, subscribe to the ME-P. It is fast, free and secure.

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Medicare Inpatient Profitability in US Hospitals

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The Impending Need for Cost-Efficiency

[By Objective Health]

Medicare patients often account for the largest proportion of inpatient volume for an average US hospital. With the exception of outlier cases, Medicare inpatient services are adjusted for wage rates and reimbursed as a single predetermined payment across the country.

Over the next few years, Medicare is expected to substantially reduce growth in payment rates, thereby pressuring hospitals to become more cost-efficient.

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Medicare OH

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Assessment

This infographic highlights the need for hospitals to manage costs, showing that there is a wide variation in Medicare inpatient profit across US hospitals, which is primarily driven by differences in Medicare cost per case.

Conclusion

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How the Affordable Care Act Affects Taxpayers Now? [Audio-Link]

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Sound Medicine –  How does the Affordable Care Act affect taxpayers now?

By Ann Miller RN MHA

Sound Medicine is a radio show produced by the Indiana University School of Medicine and WFYI Public Radio.

In the last few years Aaron Carroll MS MD associate professor of pediatrics at the Indiana University School of Medicine, has been their go-to guy on health policy.

Audio Link

So, for those of you who would find your day brightened by the sound of his voice, enjoy the following from www.theIncidentalEconomist.com

Assessment

Dr. Carroll discusses how the Affordable Care Act will affect taxpayers in the coming months. The Affordable Care Act officially takes effect in January 2014, but several provisions are being implemented this year. These provisions specifically affect Medicare and Medicaid recipients, caregivers and all taxpayers.

Conclusion

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A Financial eMR “Got-Ya” from Uncle Sam?

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CMS and the Feds Want to Verify Docs eMR Info Before Meaningful Use Payment

By ME-P Staff Reporters

The conversion to electronic medical records [eMRs] is “vulnerable” to fraud and abuse because of the failure of Medicare and CMS officials to develop appropriate safeguards, according to a sharply critical report just issued by federal investigators.

###

[mobile eMR in clincal use]

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Full Report: https://oig.hhs.gov/oei/reports/oei-05-11-00250.pdf

Assessment

Requiring an audit before paying hospitals and doctors could  significantly delay payments to providers.

Ya think!

Conclusion

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Understanding Modern Healthcare Market Competition

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Updating Competitive Strategy Theory in Healthcare

By Robert James Cimasi; MHA ASA FRICs MCBA AVA CM&AA
By Todd A. Zigrang; MBA MHA ASA FACHE
By Anne P. Sharamitaro; Esq.

www.HealthCapital.com

Michael Porter[i] is considered by many to be one of the world’s leading authorities on competitive strategy and international competitiveness.  In 1980, he published Competitive Strategy: Techniques for Analyzing Industries and Competitors,[ii] in which he argues that all businesses must respond to five competitive forces.

(1) The Threat of New Market Entrants

This force may be defined as the risk of a similar company entering the marketplace and winning business.  There are many barriers to entry of new market entrants in healthcare including: the high cost of equipment, licensure, requirement for physicians and other highly trained technicians, development of physician referral networks and provider contracts, and other significant regulatory requirements.

Certificate of Need (CON) laws, which require governmental approval for new healthcare facilities, equipment, and services have been in place since they were federally mandated in 1974.  State CON laws create a regulatory barrier to entry.  New medical provider entrants commonly face substantial political opposition by established interests, which is manifested in the CON review process.

(2) The Bargaining Power of Suppliers

A supplier can be defined as any business relationship upon which a business relies to deliver a product, service, or outcome.  Healthcare equipment is a highly technical product produced by a limited number of manufacturers. This reduces the range of choices for providers and can increase costs.

(3) Threats from Substitute Products or Services

Substitute products or services are those that are sufficiently equivalent in function or utility to offer consumers an alternate choice of product or service.  An illustration of this in healthcare would be diagnostic imaging as a substitute for surgery, which is often a more costly and risky option for patients. The threat of less invasive or less expensive diagnostic tests other than diagnostic imaging is relatively small for the near term future.

(4) The Bargaining Power of Buyers

This force is the degree of negotiating leverage of an industry’s buyers or customers.  The buyers of healthcare services are ultimately the patients. However, the competitive force of buyers is manifested through healthcare insurers including the U.S. and state governments through the Medicare, Medicaid, TRICARE, and other programs; managed care payors (e.g., Blue Cross/Blue Shield affiliates); workers’ compensation insurers; and, others.  In addition to the government, many of these healthcare insurers are large, national companies, often publicly traded, commanding significant bargaining power over healthcare provider reimbursement.

(5) Rivalry Amongst Existing Firms

This is ongoing competition between existing firms without consideration of the other competitive forces which define industries. Healthcare providers face pressure from other existing providers to obtain favorable provider contracts; maintain the latest technology; increase efficiencies; and, lower prices.

References:

[i]  A professor of Business Administration at the Harvard Business School, Michael Porter serves as an advisor to heads of state, governors, mayors, and CEOs throughout the world.  The recipient of the Wells Prize in Economics, the Adam Smith Award, three McKinsey Awards, and honorary doctorates from the Stockholm School of Economics and six other universities, Porter is the author of fourteen books, among them Competitive Advantage, The Competitive Advantage of Nations, and Cases in Competitive Strategy.

[ii]  Porter, M.E. Competitive Strategy: Techniques for Analyzing Industries and Competitors. The Free Press, 1980.

Conclusion

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Where the Presidential Candidates Stand on Medicare and Medicaid

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The Big Picture View

By Suevon Lee ProPublica, Sept. 14, 2012, 2:26 p.m.

Medicare and Medicaid, which provide medical coverage for seniors, the poor and the disabled, together [1]make up nearly a quarter [1] of all federal spending. With total Medicare spending projected to cost [2] $7.7 trillion over the next 10 years, there is consensus that changes are in order. But what those changes should entail has, of course, been one of the hot-button issues [3] of the campaign.

With the candidates slinging charges [4], we thought we’d lay out the facts. Here’s a rundown of where the two candidates stand on Medicare and Medicaid:

THE CANDIDATES ON MEDICARE

Big Picture

Earlier this year, the Medicare Board of Trustees estimated [5] that the Medicare hospital trust fund would remain fully funded only until 2024. Medicare would not go bankrupt or disappear, but it wouldn’t have enough money to cover all hospital costs.

Under traditional government-run Medicare, seniors 65 and over and people with disabilities are given health insurance for a fixed set of benefits, in what’s known as fee-for-service [6] coverage. Medicare also offers a subset of private health plans known as Medicare Advantage, in which roughly one-quarter [7] of Medicare beneficiaries are currently enrolled. Obama retains this structure.

The Obama administration has also made moves that it says would keep Medicare afloat. It says the Affordable Care Act would extend solvency [8] by eight years, mainly by imposing tighter spending controls on Medicare payments to private insurers and hospitals.

In contrast, Rep. Paul Ryan, Mitt Romney’s running mate, has proposed a more fundamental overhaul of Medicare, which he says [9] is on an “unsustainable path.” On his campaign website [10], Romney says that Ryan’s proposals “almost precisely mirrors” his ideas on Medicare. But he’s been fuzzy on other aspects of the plan.

A Romney-Ryan administration would replace a defined benefits system with a defined contribution system [11] in which seniors are given federal vouchers to purchase health insurance in a newly created private marketplace known as Medicare Exchange. In this marketplace, private health plans, along with traditional Medicare, would compete for enrollees’ business. These changes wouldn’t start until 2023, meaning current beneficiaries aren’t affected – just those under 55.

Under the Romney-Ryan, the vouchers would be valued [12] at the second-cheapest private plan or traditional Medicare, whichever costs less. Seniors who opt for a more expensive plan would pay the difference. If they choose a cheaper plan, they keep the savings.

Who’s Covered

In the current system, people 65 and over are eligible for Medicare, which Obama has said he would keep [13] for now.

Romney has proposed [14]raising the eligibility age for Medicare beneficiaries from 65 to 67 in 2022, then increasing it by a month each year after that. In the long run, he would index [15] eligibility levels to “longevity.” Ryan’s budget plan proposes [16] raising Medicare eligibility age by two months a year starting in 2023, until it reaches 67 by 2034.

Many others looking to keep Medicare solvent have also proposed [17]raising the age of eligibility.

The Congressional Budget Office estimates [18]that raising the minimum age from 65 to 67 would reduce annual federal spending by 5 percent.But it would also result in higher premiums and out-of-pocket costs for seniors who would lose access to Medicare.

Obama’s health care law also adds [19] some benefits for seniors, such as annual wellness visits without co-pays, preventive services like free cancer screenings and prescription drug savings.

Proposed Savings

The Affordable Care Act is projected to reduce Medicare spending by $716 billion over the next 10 years. These reductions, as detailed [20] by Washington Post’s Wonkblog, will come mostly from reducing payments to hospitals, nursing homes and private health care providers.

While Ryan criticized [21] such spending cuts in his speech at the Republican National Convention, his own budget proposed [22] keeping these reductions.

“The ACA grows the trust fund by giving more general revenue to the Treasury, which then gives the trust fund bonds. But it then uses the money from those bonds to expand coverage for low- and middle-income people,” explains [23] Dylan Matthews on Washington Post’s Wonkblog.

Romney hasn’t really come up with a solid answer: he previously said he would restore [24] the $716 billion savings that the health care law imposes. Per this New York Times story [24], the American Institutes for Research calculates this would increase premiums and co-payments for Medicare beneficiaries by $342 a year on average over the next 10 years.

For more on where the candidates stand on the $716 billion, the private health policy Commonwealth Fund offers this helpful explanation [25].

Caps on Spending

Both Obama and Ryan have set an identical target rate [26] that would cap Medicare spending at one-half a percentage point above the nation’s gross domestic product.

But they have different ideas on mechanisms to achieve it.

The Affordable Care Act establishes a 15-member Independent Payment Advisory Board [27] that, starting in 2015, would make binding recommendations to reduce spending rates. As Jonathan Cohn points out [28] in the New Republic, the commission is prohibited from making any changes that would affect beneficiaries.

Ryan has proposed hard caps on spending and derided [29]this panel of appointed members as “unelected, unaccountable bureaucrats.” When laying out his plan in a 2011 memo [30], Ryan wrote that to control spending, “Congress would be required to intervene and could implement policies that change provider reimbursements, program overhead, and means-tested premiums.”

Romney hasn’t stated [31] clear proposals for imposing a cap on spending.

THE CANDIDATES ON MEDICAID

Big Picture

Though, it’s far less discussed [32] on the campaign trail, Medicaid actually covers more people than Medicare. The joint federal-state insurance program for the poor, the disabled, and elderly individuals in long-term nursing home care currently covers about 60 million Americans. The Affordable Care Act hasexpanded [33] Medicaid coverage further. Beginning 2014, Medicaid will include [34]people under 65 with income below 133 percent of the federal poverty level (roughly $15,000 for an individual, $30,000 for a family of four). This was estimated [35] to cover an additional 17 million Americans as eligible beneficiaries.

In June, however, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled [36] that states could opt out of the Medicaid expansion. A ProPublica analysis estimated [37] that the 26 states that challenged the health care law, and thus may possibly opt out, would account for up to 8.5 million of those new beneficiaries.

Romney and Ryan would overhaul this current system by turning Medicaid into a system of block grants [38]: the federal government would issue lump sum payments to the states, who would determine eligibility criteria and benefits for enrollees. These grants would begin in 2013.

Effects on spending

The Congressional Budget Office estimates [39] that Medicaid expansion under the new health care law would cost an additional $642 billion over the next 10 years.

Under the Ryan plan, federal Medicaid grants would be adjusted only for inflation, but not health care costs, which grow at a much higher rate. The CBO estimates [40] Ryan’s plan would save the federal government $800 billion over the next 10 years. Another study conducted by Bloomberg News shows that the block-grants could decrease Medicaid funding by as much as $1.26 trillion [41] over the next nine years.

Actual Impact

The New York Times points out [42] that more than half of Medicaid spending goes toward the elderly and disabled. An Urban Institute analysis estimates [43] the Ryan plan would result in 14 million to 27 million fewer people receiving Medicaid coverage by 2021.

Assessment

Though rarely mentioned by any of the candidates, Medicaid costs are soaring to cover the elderly who require long-term nursing care. As the Times’ details [44] how, states saddled by high Medicaid costs have begun turning to private managed care plans to blunt the cost.

Conclusion

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