HOSPITALS: Management, Operations and Strategies

Tools, Templates and Case Studies

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What is a Retirement QCD?

A Tax-Efficient Way to Donate Money to Charity

By Staff Reporters

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A qualified charitable distribution (QCD) is a withdrawal from an individual retirement arrangement (IRA) that’s made directly to an eligible charity.

CITE: https://www.r2library.com/Resource/Title/0826102549

IRA account holders who were at least age 70.5 as of Dec. 31, 2019, can contribute some or all of their IRAs to charity.

LINK: https://6acebc46b9e64340fdc1a8917e0c290a.safeframe.googlesyndication.com/safeframe/1-0-38/html/container.html

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Creative Giving Strategies: The QCD - Nebraska Cultural Endowment

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It might seem counterintuitive that anyone would want to give their savings away after making contributions for years in anticipation of the day when they would retire, but there can be tax advantages for doing so.

IRS: https://www.irs.gov/retirement-plans/retirement-plans-faqs-regarding-iras-distributions-withdrawals

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Risk Management, Liability Insurance, and Asset Protection Strategies for Doctors and Advisors : Best Practices from Leading Consultants and Certified Medical Planners™ book cover

RISK MANAGEMENT: https://www.routledge.com/Risk-Management-Liability-Insurance-and-Asset-Protection-Strategies-for/Marcinko-Hetico/p/book/9781498725989

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What Date has Never Been Known as Tax Day?

By Staff Reporters

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TRIVIA QUESTION: What date has never been known as Tax Day?

A. March 1st
B. March 15th
C. April 15th
D. May 1st

ANSWER: D—May 1st.

After the 16th Amendment cleared the way for the modern version of the federal income tax, the first filing deadline fell on March 1, 1913. Congress shifted Tax Day to March 15 after passing the Revenue Act of 1918, which introduced a progressive income tax structure to increase revenue during World War I. Since 1954, Tax Day for most Americans has been April 15 (or the next business day if the 15th falls on a weekend or holiday).

CITE: https://www.r2library.com/Resource/Title/082610254

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The STEP-UP In Investment Value?

Understanding the TAX loophole of a ‘step up’ in BASIS value

By Dr. David E. Marcinko MBA CMP®

CMP logo

SPONSOR: http://www.CertifiedMedicalPlanner.org

The term “step-up” refers to the difference in value and tax liability that an asset has when it is acquired and when it is transferred to an inheritor.

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CITE: https://www.r2library.com/Resource/Title/0826102549

EXAMPLE #2: The proverbial millionaire Doctor Joe, for example, could buy a home for $350,000 and sell it for $1 million, after which he’d pay taxes on the $650,000 gain. But if Dr. Joe passes the home onto his daughter Ella, and she has it appraised at $1 million, its value has taken a “step up” in value to $1 million. If Ella sells the home for $1 million or less, she wouldn’t owe anything in taxes.

ASSESSMENT: For billionaires like Jeff Bezos, Bill Gates and Elon Musk who earn far more through their investments than their salaries, this loophole is a perfect way to shield their wealth. Intergenerational wealth has contributed to surging inequality in America, which grew wider during the pandemic. Since 2019, the wealth of the top 400 richest people in the US increased by $1.4 trillion, per research from Gabriel Zucman and Emmanuel Saez, a pair of left-leaning economists at the University of California, Berkeley.

“Often, for these people, wealth accumulates tax-free their entire lives,” Frank Clemente, executive director at the left-leaning advocacy group Americans for Tax Fairness, opined. President Joe Biden proposed ending this loophole and making billionaires “pay their fair share,” so why does it look like his party won’t touch it?

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Financial Accounting Definitions All Physician Should Know

By Meredith Wood

The Most Important Business and Finance Terms

  1. Accounts Payable
  2. Accounts Receivable
  3. Asset
  4. Balance Sheet
  5. Cash Flow
  6. Fixed Asset
  7. Income Statement
  8. Liability
  9. Profit & Loss Statement
  10. Annual Percentage Rate
  11. Collateral
  12. Loan-to-Value
  13. Debt-Service Coverage Ratio
  14. Lien
  15. Personal Guarantee
  16. Financial Statements
  17. Debt Consolidation
  18. Gross Profit
  19. Statement of Cash Flow
  20. Credit Limit

Running a business involves a constant learning curve. And that applies whether you’re a rookie entrepreneur just starting out with a great idea for a new business or a more established small business owner with a quickly growing business that needs to expand. You should always be learning as a business owner, no matter where you are in your career—there’s always a new tool to master, new problems to solve, and new vocabulary to understand.

In order to not get totally overwhelmed, it’s helpful to take things one segment at a time. For instance, feeling confident when discussing the business’s financial needs should be a priority for every small business owner. After all, you represent the heart and soul of your business in the marketplace. So knowing the “language” of business finance is an integral part of your job as the owner.

The good news is that you don’t have to be an accountant or a financial planner to negotiate in the world of business finance. Here are some business terms and finance terms that will help you find your way to successful small business funding. https://www.youtube.com/embed/0kD4X2fgxGs

Business and Finance Terms to Know

From accounting, to business loans, to general business financial operations, here’s the ultimate list to all the business finance terms and definitions you need to know:

1. Accounts Payable

Accounts payable is a business finance 101 term. This represents your small business’s obligations to pay debts owed to lenders, suppliers, and creditors. Sometimes referred to as A/P or AP for short, accounts payable can be short or long term depending upon the type of credit provided to the business by the lender.

2. Accounts Receivable

Also known as A/R (or AR, good guess), accounts receivables is another business finance 101 term that means the money owed to your small business by others for goods or services rendered. These accounts are labeled as assets because they represent a legal obligation for the customer to pay you cash for their short-term debt.

3. Accrual Basis

The accrual basis of accounting is an accounting method of recording income when it’s actually earned and expenses when they actually occur. Accrual basis accounting is the most common approach used by larger businesses to record and maintain financial transactions.

4. Accruals

A business finance term and definition referring to expenses that have been incurred but haven’t yet been recorded in the business books. Wages and payroll taxes are common examples.

5. Asset

This business finance key term is anything that has value—whether tangible or intangible—and is owned by the business is considered an asset. Typical items listed as business assets are cash on hand, accounts receivable, buildings, equipment, inventory, and anything else that can be turned into cash.

6. Balance Sheet

Along with three other reports relating to the financial health of your small business, the balance sheet is essential information that gives a “snapshot” of the company’s net worth at any given time. The report is a summary of the business assets and liabilities.

7. Bookkeeping

A method of accounting that involves the timely recording of all financial transactions for the business.

8. Capital

Refers to the overall wealth of a business as demonstrated by its cash accounts, assets, and investments. Often called “fixed capital,” it refers to the long-term worth of the business. Capital can be tangible, like durable goods, buildings, and equipment, or intangible such as intellectual property.

9. Working Capital

Not to be confused with fixed capital, working capital is another business finance 101 term. It consists of the financial resources necessary for maintaining the day-to-day operation of the business. Working capital, by definition, is the business’s cash on hand or instruments that you can convert to cash quickly.

10. Cash Flow

Every business needs cash to operate. The business finance term and definition cash flow refers to the amount of operating cash that “flows” through the business and affects the business’s liquidity. Cash flow reports reflect activity for a specified period of time, usually one accounting period or one month. Maintaining tight control of cash flow is especially important if your small business is new, since ready cash can be limited until the business begins to grow and produce more working capital.

11. Cash Flow Projections

Future business decisions will depend on your educated cash flow projections. To plan ahead for upcoming expenditures and working capital, you need to depend on previous cash flow patterns. These patterns will give you a comprehensive look at how and when you receive and spend your cash. This info is the key to unlock informed, accurate cash flow projections.

12. Depreciation

The value of any asset can be said to depreciate when it loses some of that value in increments over time. Depreciation occurs due to wear and tear. Various methods of depreciation are used by businesses to decrease the recorded value of assets.

13. Fixed Asset

A tangible, long-term asset used for the business and not expected to be sold or otherwise converted into cash during the current or upcoming fiscal year is called a fixed asset. Fixed assets are items like furniture, computer equipment, equipment, and real estate.

14. Gross Profit

This business finance term and definition can be calculated as total sales (income) less the costs (expenses) directly related to those sales. Raw materials, manufacturing expenses, labor costs, marketing, and transportation of goods are all included in expenses.

15. Income Statement

Here is one of the four most important reports lenders and investors want to see when evaluating the viability of your small business. It is also called a profit and loss statement, and it addresses the business’s bottom line, reporting how much the business has earned and spent over a given period of time. The result will be either a net gain or a net loss.

16. Intangible Asset

A business asset that is non-physical is considered intangible. These assets can be items like patents, goodwill, and intellectual property.

17. Liability

This business finance key term is a legal obligation to repay or otherwise settle a debt. Liabilities are considered either current (payable within one year or less) or long-term (payable after one year) and are listed on a business’s balance sheet. A business’s accounts payable, wages, taxes, and accrued expenses are all considered liabilities. 

18. Liquidity

Liquidity is an indicator of how quickly an asset can be turned into cash for full market value. The more liquid your assets, the more financial flexibility you have.

19. Profit & Loss Statement

See “Income Statement” above.

20. Statement of Cash Flow

One of the important documents required by lenders and investors that shows a summary of the actual collection of revenue and payment of expenses for your business. The statement of cash flow should reflect activity in the areas of operating, investing, and financing and should be an integral part of your financial statement package.

21. Statement of Shareholders’ Equity

If you have chosen to fund your small business with equity financing and you have established shares and shareholders as part of the controlling interests, you are obligated to provide a financial report that shows changes in the equity section of your balance sheet.

22. Annual Percentage Rate

The business finance term and definition APR represents the yearly real cost of a loan including all interest and fees. The total amount of interest to be paid is based on the original amount loaned, or the principal, and is represented in percentage form. When shopping for the right loan for your small business, you should know the APR for the loan in question. This figure can be very helpful in comparing one financial tool with another since it represents the actual cost of borrowing.

23. Appraisal

Just like your real estate appraisal when buying a house, an appraisal is a professional opinion of market value. When closing a loan for your small business, you will probably need one or more of the three types of appraisals: real estate, equipment, and business value.

24. Balloon Loan

A loan that is structured so that the small business owner makes regular repayments on a predetermined schedule and one much larger payment, or balloon payment, at the end. These can be attractive to new businesses because the payments are smaller at the outset when the business is more likely to be facing strict financial constraints. However, be sure that your business will be capable of making that last balloon payment since it will be a large one.

25. Bankruptcy

This federal law is used as a tool for businesses or individuals who are having severe financial challenges. It provides a plan for reduction and repayment of debts over time or an opportunity to completely eliminate the majority of the outstanding debts. Turning to bankruptcy should be given careful thought because it will have a negative effect on the business credit score.

26. Bootstrapping

Using your own money to finance the start-up and growth of your small business. Think of it as being your own investor. Once the business is up and running successfully, the business finance term and definition bootstrapping refers to the use of profits earned to reinvest in the business.

27. Business Credit Report

Just like you have a personal credit report that lenders look at to determine risk factors for making personal loans, businesses also generate credit reports. These are maintained by credit bureaus that record information about a business’s financial history.

Items like how large the company is, how long has it been in business, amount and type of credit issued to the business, how credit has been managed, and any legal filings (i.e., bankruptcy) are all questions addressed by the business credit report. Lenders, investors, and insurance companies use these reports to evaluate risk exposure and financial health of a business.

28. Business Credit Score

A business credit score is calculated based on the information found in the business credit report. Using a specialized algorithm, business credit scoring companies take into account all the information found on your credit report and give your small business a credit score. Also called a commercial credit score, this number is used by various lenders and suppliers to evaluate your creditworthiness.

29. Collateral

Any asset that you pledge as security for a loan instrument is called collateral. Lenders often require collateral as a way to make sure they won’t lose money if your business defaults on the loan. When you pledge an asset for collateral, it becomes subject to seizure by the lender if you fail to meet the requirements of the loan documents.

30. Credit Limit

When a lender offers a business line of credit it usually comes with a credit limit, or a maximum amount that you can use at any given time. It is said that you reach your credit limit or “max out” your credit when you borrow up to or exceed that number. A business line of credit can be especially useful if your business is seasonal or if the income is extremely unpredictable. It is one of the fastest ways to access cash for emergencies.

31. Debt Consolidation

If your small business has several loans with various payments, you might want to consider a business debt consolidation loan. It is a process that lets you combine multiple loans into a single loan. The advantages are possibly reducing the interest rates on the borrowed funds as well as lowering the total amount you repay each month. Businesses use this tool to help improve cash flow.

32. Debt Service Coverage Ratio

The business finance term and definition debt service coverage ratio (DSCR) is the ratio of cash your small business has available for paying or servicing its debt. Debt payments include making principal and interest payments on the loan you are requesting. Generally speaking, if your DSCR is above 1, your business has enough income to meet its debt requirements.

33. Debt Financing

When you borrow money from a lender and agree to repay the principal with interest in regular payments for a specified period of time, you’re using debt financing. Traditionally, it has been the most common form of funding for small businesses.

Debt financing can include borrowing from banks, business credit cards, lines of credit, personal loans, merchant cash advances, and invoice financing. This method creates a debt that must be repaid but lets you maintain sole control of your business.

34. Equity Financing

The act of using investor funds in exchange for a piece or ”share” of your business is another way to raise capital. These funds can come from friends, family, angel investors, or venture capitalists.

Before deciding to use equity financing to raise the cash necessary for your business, decide how much control you are willing to share when it comes to decision-making and philosophy. Some investors will also want voting rights.

35. FICO Score

A FICO score is another type of credit score used by potential lenders for evaluating the wisdom of entering a contract with you and your business. FICO scores comprise a substantial part of the credit report that lenders use to assess credit risk. It was created by the Fair Isaac Corporation, hence the name FICO.

36. Financial Statements

An integral part of the loan application process is furnishing information that shows your business is a good credit risk. The standard financial statement packet includes four main reports: the income statement, the balance sheet, the statement of cash flow, and the statement of shareholders’ equity, if you have shareholders.

Lenders and investors want to see that your business is well-balanced with assets and liabilities, has positive cash flow, and will have capital to make expected repayments.

37. Fixed Interest Rate

The interest rate on a loan that is established in the beginning and does not change for the lifetime of the loan is said to be fixed. Loans with fixed interest rates are appealing to small business owners because the repayment amounts are consistent and easier to budget for in the future.

38. Floating Interest Rate

In contrast to the business finance term and definition fixed rate, the floating interest rate will change with market fluctuations. Also referred to as variable rates or adjustable rates, these amounts may often start out lower than the fixed rate percentages. This makes them more appealing in the short term if the market is trending down.

39. Guarantor

When starting a new small business, lenders might want you to provide a guarantor. This is an individual who guarantees to cover the balance owed on a debt if you or your business cannot meet the repayment obligation.

40. Interest Rate

All loans and other lending instruments are assigned the business finance key term interest rates. This is a percentage of the principal amount charged by the lender for the use of its money. Interest rates represent the current cost of borrowing.

41. Invoice Factoring or Financing

If your business has a significant amount of open invoices outstanding, you may contact a factoring company and have them purchase the invoices at a discount. By raising capital this way, there is no debt, and the factoring company assumes the financial responsibility for collecting the invoice debts.

42. Lien

This business finance term and definition is a creditor’s legal claim to the collateral pledged as security for a loan is called a lien.

43. Line of Credit

A lender may offer you an unsecured amount of funds available for your business to draw on when capital is needed. This line of credit is considered a short-term funding option, with a maximum amount available. This pre-approved pool of money is appealing because it gives you quick access to the cash.

44. Loan-to-Value

The LTV comparison is a ratio of the fair-market value of an asset compared to the amount of the loan that will fund it. This is another important number for lenders who need to know if the value of the asset will cover the loan repayment if your business defaults and fails to pay.

45. Long-Term Debt

Any loan product with a total repayment schedule lasting longer than one year is considered a long-term debt.

46. Merchant Cash Advance

A merchant may offer a funding method through a loan based on the business’s monthly sales volume. Repayment is made with a percentage of the daily or weekly sales. These tend to be short-term loans and are one of the costliest ways to fund your small business.

47. Microloan

Microloans are loans made through nonprofit, community-based organizations and they are most often for amounts under $50,000.

48. Personal Guarantee

If you’re seeking financing for a very new business and don’t have a high value asset to offer as collateral, you may be asked by the lender to sign a statement of  personal guarantee. In effect, this statement affirms that you as an individual will act as guarantor for the business’s debt, making you personally liable for the balance of the loan even in the event that your business fails.

49. Principal

Any loan instrument is made of three parts—the principal, the interest, and the fees. The principal is a business finance key term and is the original amount that is borrowed or the outstanding balance to be repaid less interest. It is used to calculate the total interest and fees charged.

50. Revolving Line of Credit

This business finance term and definition is a funding option is similar to a standard line of credit. However, the agreement is to lend a specific amount of money, and once that sum is repaid, it can be borrowed again.

51. Secured Loan

Many lenders will require some form of security when loaning money. When this happens, this business finance term and definition is a secured loan. The asset being used as collateral for the loan is said to be “securing” the loan. In the event that your small business defaults on the loan, the lender can then claim the collateral and use its fair-market value to offset the unpaid balance.

52. Term Loan

These are debt financing tools used to raise needed funds for your small business. Term loans provide the business with a lump sum of cash up front in exchange for a promise to repay the principal and interest at specified intervals over a set period of time. These are typically longer term, one-time loans for start-up expenses or costs for established business expansion.

53. Unsecured Loans

Loans that are not backed by collateral are called unsecured loans. These types of loans represent a higher risk for the lender, so you can expect to pay higher interest rates and have shorter repayment time frames. Credit cards are an excellent example of unsecured loans that are a good option for small business funding when combined with other financing options.

54. Articles of Incorporation

This is legal documentation of the business’s creation, including name, type of business, and type of business structure or incorporation. This paperwork is one of the first tasks you will complete when you officially start your business. Once submitted, your articles of incorporation are kept on file with the appropriate governmental agencies.

55. Business Plan

Here is your tool for demonstrating how you want to establish your small business and how you plan to grow it into good financial health. When writing a business plan, it should include financial, operational, and marketing goals as well as how you plan to get there. The more specific you are with your business plan, the better prepared you will be in the long run.

56. Employer Identification Number (EIN) Certificate

In order to be more easily identified by the Internal Revenue Service, every business entity is assigned a unique number called an EIN. When you start your small business, an EIN will be assigned and mailed to the business address. This number never changes, and you will be asked to furnish it for many reasons.

57. Franchise Agreement

For a small business entrepreneur, entering into a franchise agreement with a larger company can be a way to enter the marketplace. The agreement made between you and the larger company gives you the right to operate as a satellite of the larger company in a certain territory for a given period of time. This lets you, the business owner, take advantage of a brand name that’s already familiar in the marketplace and a process or operation that has already been tested.

58. Net Worth

This business finance term and definition is an expression of your business’s total value, as determined by your total current assets less the total liabilities currently owed by the business. With your business’s most recent balance sheet in hand, you can calculate the net worth using a simple formula: Assets – Liabilities = Net Worth.

59. Retained Earnings

Just like it sounds, this term represents any profits earned that are retained in the business. This can also be referred to as bootstrapping.

60. Tax Lien

If your business fails to pay taxes owed to the designated government entity, namely the IRS, you may find your assets seized by the claim of a tax lien. The government can not only seize your assets for liquidation to resolve the tax debt, but they can also charge you penalties on the amount you owe.

Don’t Be Overwhelmed by Health Economics, Business and Finance Terms 

As a small business owner, physicians are required to wear many different hats—often including that of chief financial officer or bookkeeper. Before you let yourself get intimidated by all the business terms and definitions, just remember that knowledge is power.

Product Details

CITE: https://www.r2library.com/Resource/Title/0826102549

You can serve your small practice business, clinic, out-patient center or hospital most effectively by becoming familiar with terms used in business and finance and how they will affect your financial health. Armed with a basic understanding of business finance key terms, you will be prepared to face the financial challenges that go along with being a modern doctor, today!

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Tax Deductions versus Tax Credits

By Staff Reporters

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What is a tax deduction?

A deduction reduces the amount of income you pay taxes on, which means you could pay less in taxes. You subtract deductions from your income before calculating how much taxes you owe. How much a deduction saves you depends on your income tax bracket.

To calculate how much a deduction could reduce your taxes, you multiply the amount of the deduction by your marginal tax rate. For example, if a deduction is worth $5,000 and you are in the 10% tax bracket (the lowest), the deduction would reduce your taxes by $500.

A deduction’s value to you is tied to your tax rate. So if you’re paying a higher tax rate, you can reap more of a deduction’s benefit. The lower your tax rate, the less benefit a deduction will have for you. Imagine that you take a $5,000 deduction, but you’re in the 35% tax bracket — the second highest. Now you’re saving $1,750 in taxes.

CITE: https://www.r2library.com/Resource/Title/082610254

What is a tax credit?

On the other hand, a credit is a dollar-for-dollar reduction in the amount of tax you owe. For example, if you qualify for a $1,000 tax credit of some kind and owe $5,000 in taxes, that credit will reduce your tax burden to $4,000.

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But – Do Not Claim Too Many Tax Deductions

Deductions are enticing to taxpayers because they can reduce the amount of your income before you calculate the tax you owe, which in turn might significantly lower how much you have to pay in taxes or increase your refund. But that doesn’t mean you should go wild writing things off on your tax returns, as experts say claiming too many deductions is the most common reason people end up getting audited by the IRS.

Don’t try writing off deductions that are no longer accepted by the IRS. The tax code has changed over the years, and there are some things the tax agency no longer recognizes. You should remember that some of the tax write-offs were terminated by the IRS, including deductions on alimony, moving expenses, and any expenses related to investing, hobbies, and tax preparation.

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Income Tax Brackets for 2021

By Staff Reporters

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CITE: https://www.r2library.com/Resource/Title/082610254

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If taxable income is:The tax due is:
Under $9,95010% of the taxable income
Over $9,950 but under or equal to $40,525$995 plus 12% of the excess over $9,950
Over $40,525 but under or equal to $86,375$4,664 plus 22% of the excess over $40,525
Over $86,375 but under or equal to $164,925$14,751 plus 24% of the excess over $86,375
Over $164,925 but under or equal to $209,425$33,603 plus 32% of the excess over $164,925
Over $209,425 but under or equal to $523,600$47,843 plus 35% of the excess over $209,425
Over $523,600$157,804.25 plus 37% of the excess over $523,600

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If taxable income is:The tax due is:
Not over $9,95010% of the taxable income
Over $9,950 but under or equal to $40,525$995 plus 12% of the excess over $9,950
Over $40,525 but under or equal to $86,375$4,664 plus 22% of the excess over $40,525
Over $86,375 but under or equal to $164,925$14,751 plus 24% of the excess over $86,375
Over $164,925 but under or equal to $209,425$33,603 plus 32% of the the excess over $164,925
Over $209,425 but under or equal to $314,150$47,843 plus 35% of the excess over $209,425
Over $314,150$84,496 plus 37% of the excess over $314,150

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If taxable income is:The tax due is:
Not over $19,90010% of the taxable income
Over $19,900 but under or equal to $81,050$1,990 plus 12% of the excess over $19,900
Over $81,050 but under or equal to $172,750$9,328 plus 22% of the excess over $81,050
Over $172,750 but under or equal to $329,850$29,502 plus 24% of the excess over $172,750
Over $329,850 but under or equal to $418,850$67,206 plus 32% of the excess over $329,850
Over $418,850 but under or equal to $628,300$95,686 plus 35% of the excess over $418,850
Over $628,300$168,993.50 plus 37% of the excess over $628,300

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If taxable income is:The tax due is:
Not over $14,20010% of the taxable income
Over $14,200 but under or equal to $54,200$1,420 plus 12% of the excess over $14,200
Over $54,200 but under or equal to $86,350$6,220 plus 22% of the excess over $54,200
Over $86,350 but under or equal to $164,900$13,293 plus 24% of the excess over $86,350
Over $164,900 but under or equal to $209,400$32,145 plus 32% of the the excess over $164,900
Over $209,400 but under or equal to $523,600$46,385 plus 35% of the excess over $209,400
Over $523,600$156,355 plus 37% of the excess over $523,600

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The IRS, Taxation and Virtual Currency!

New Reporting Warning Issued

By Staff Reporters

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Virtual currency transactions are taxable by law just like transactions in any other property. Taxpayers transacting in virtual currency may have to report those transactions on their tax returns.

CITE: https://www.r2library.com/Resource/Title/0826102549

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All taxpayers must answer a question about virtual currency on their return.

On March 18th, the IRS issued a new alert warning all taxpayers that they must answer a section about virtual currency on their 2021 tax refund this year, even if they did not deal with any digital transactions. According to the agency, there is a question on the top of all versions of Form 1040 that asks, “At any time during 2021, did you receive, sell, exchange, or otherwise dispose of any financial interest in any virtual currency?”

“All taxpayers filing Form 1040, Form 1040-SR or Form 1040-NR must check one box answering either ‘Yes’ or ‘No’ to the virtual currency question,” the IRS explained. “The question must be answered by all taxpayers, not just taxpayers who engaged in a transaction involving virtual currency in 2021.”

IRS: https://www.irs.gov/businesses/small-businesses-self-employed/virtual-currencies

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ETFs and Tax Efficiency

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A Better Financial Product than Mutual Funds?

[By JD Steinhilber]

Exchange-traded funds are inherently more tax efficient than actively managed mutual funds, which have been rightly criticized for their tax-inefficiency. Tax-efficiency is a critical issue for financial advisors and physician-investors because delaying the taxation of appreciating assets normally enhances after-tax returns over time.

For example, it is estimated that between 1994 and 1999, investors in diversified U.S. stock mutual funds lost, on average, 15% of their annual gains to taxes. The tax inefficiency of mutual funds is the result of portfolio turnover at the fund level caused by two factors: the trading activity of the portfolio manager and the activity of other shareholders in the fund.       

The Mutual Fund Performance / Redemption Problem

Due to fund manager efforts to outperform benchmarks, actively managed mutual funds almost invariably experience more “manager-driven” portfolio turnover than ETFs, where trading is generally driven by change in the composition of the underlying indexes being replicated. Mutual fund portfolio turnover can also be caused by the actions of shareholders in the fund. 

In a mutual fund structure, redemption requests by shareholders can force the fund to sell securities to raise cash. These sales may give rise to gains that, by law, must be distributed and will be taxed to all shareholders in the fund.

Unique Architectural Structure

ETFs, in contrast, are structured in such a way that the actions of one shareholder do not result in tax consequences to another shareholder.  ETFs accomplish this through the innovative architecture in which ETF “units” (which are subdivided into individual ETF shares) are created and redeemed to accommodate the fluctuating demand for the shares of a particular ETF.

ETF units are created and redeemed by institutional investors though non-taxable, “in-kind” transactions, which means that only securities – not cash – change hands in the creation and redemption process. 

An example of this process would be an institution exchanging a portfolio of stocks constituting the S&P 500 index for an S&P 500 ETF “creation unit”. And, once created, the S&P 500 ETF can be subdivided into individual shares that are tradable by investors on the exchange.   

Assessment

As a result of the above – physicians may be insulated from a tax standpoint by the actions of other investors – because taxable transactions don’t take place at the fund level.  Instead, ETF shares are traded between retail investors in transactions on the exchanges, so the tax accounting becomes very similar to that associated with individual stocks.    

Have you used ETFs in your own portfolio, and what is your tax efficiency experience with them; truth or hype? 

Conclusion

Your thoughts and comments on this ME-P are appreciated. Feel free to review our top-left column, and top-right sidebar materials, links, URLs and related websites, too. Then, subscribe to the ME-P. It is fast, free and secure.

Speaker: If you need a moderator or speaker for an upcoming event, Dr. David E. Marcinko; MBA – Publisher-in-Chief of the Medical Executive-Post – is available for seminar or speaking engagements. Contact: MarcinkoAdvisors@msn.com

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IRS & PHYSICIANS: Married Filing Separately May Save Taxes?

By Staff Reporters

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The IRS considers taxpayers married if they are legally married under state law, live together in a state-recognized common-law marriage, or are separated but have no separation maintenance or final divorce decree as of the end of the tax year.

CITE: https://www.r2library.com/Resource/Title/082610254

Of the 150.3 million tax returns filed in 2016, the latest year for which the IRS has published statistics, 3.07 million belonged to twosomes who filed separately.

  • These partners reported individual income and expenses on individual tax returns.
  • They had to agree on either itemizing expenses or using the standard deduction.
  • By filing separately, their similar incomes, miscellaneous deductions or medical expenses likely helped them save taxes.

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Consequences of Filing Married Separate | SC Associates

Filing separately with similar incomes

A couple may pay the IRS less by filing separately when both physician spouses work and earn about the same amount.

  • When they compare the tax due amount under both joint and separate filing statuses, they may discover that combining their earnings puts them into a higher tax bracket.
  • Their savings depends on a variety of other factors, however, including their investment situation and whether they have children.
  • The “married filing separately” status cuts the deductions for IRA contributions and eliminates certain tax credits, among other tax breaks.

Using miscellaneous deductions by filing separately (for tax years prior to 2018)

Miscellaneous deductions can lower taxable income, but in order to enter them on Schedule A, they must add up to more than 2% of adjusted gross income (AGI).

  • Physician or other spouses with union dues, job-search costs, tax-preparation fees and un-reimbursed business expenses may find their miscellaneous deductions don’t qualify when their higher combined income raises their AGI.
  • A spouse who travel frequently for business could rack up a sizable tally in airline fees for baggage and itinerary changes that makes the miscellaneous deduction worth pursuing.

Beginning in 2018, these types of miscellaneous expenses are no longer deductible.

Filing separately to save with unforeseen expenses

Adjusted gross income also determines if a couple can use un-reimbursed health care costs and casualty losses on Schedule A to save taxes.

  • Unless out-of-pocket medical expenses exceed 7.5% of AGI for 2021, they don’t qualify as a deduction.
  • Casualty losses must also total more than 10% of AGI and occur in a federally declared disaster area.

The spouse with the loss or substantial medical outlay calculates deductibility against his or her own lower AGI when the couple files separate returns. When one spouse can lower taxable income this way, married filing separately might trim a couple’s overall tax burden.

Filing separately to guard the future

When you don’t want to be liable for your partner’s tax bill, choosing the married-filing-separately status offers financial protection: the IRS won’t apply your refund to your spouse’s balance due. Separate returns make sense to prevent the IRS from seizing a spouse’s tax refund when the other has fallen behind on child support payments.

Couples in the process of divorcing may shun joint returns to avoid post-divorce complications with the IRS, while a spouse who questions her partner’s tax ethics may feel more comfortable living a separate tax life.

Couples living in community-property states should consider state law when deciding how to file.

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UPDATE: IRS Interest Rates Rising, Currency Inflation and Upcoming Earning Reports, etc.

By Staff Reporters

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IRS: The IRS sent out a notice on February 23rd, warning taxpayers about a price hike coming in the next few months. The tax agency said that interest rates will increase for the calendar quarter starting April 1st, 2022. You can accrue interest on two types of payments: over-payment or underpayment. So starting in April, over-payments will have an interest rate of 4 percent, except for corporations which will earn a 3 percent rate and a 1.5 percent rate for the portion of a corporate over-payment that exceeds $10,000. In terms of underpayments, the interest rate will increase to 4 percent overall and 6 percent for large corporate underpayments.

“Under the Internal Revenue Code, the rate of interest is determined on a quarterly basis,” the IRS website explained. The tax agency did not change interest rates in this last quarter, which began Jan. 1, 2022. Before they get changed in April, the rates are currently 3 percent for general over-payments and 2 percent for corporation over-payments, with a 0.5 percent rate for the portion of a corporate over-payment exceeding $10,000. The underpayment interest is 3 percent right now, expect for large corporations which have a 5 percent rate.

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CURRENCY INFLATION: Inflation may occur when the Federal Reserve, or another central bank, adds fiat currency into circulation at a rate that exceeds that of the economy’s growth rate. That creates a situation in which there are more dollars bidding on fewer goods and services. The result is that goods and services cost more. One reason that inflation has been a constant in the US since 1933 is that the FOMC has continually increased the money supply. In response to the 2008 financial crisis, the Fed dropped its lending rate close to zero as a way to inject more liquidity into the economy, which led to increased inflation but not hyperinflation. While those increases have usually moved in step with growth, that hasn’t always been the case.

CITE: https://www.r2library.com/Resource/Title/0826102549

And so, in response to the COVID-19 pandemic and subsequent lock-downs, the Federal Reserve released the equivalent of $3.8 trillion in new liquidity in 2020. That amount was equal to roughly 20% of the dollars previously in circulation. And it is one reason why many investors were watching the CPI closely in 2021.

EARNING REPORTS:

Monday: India GDP data; Earnings from Lordstown Motors, Groupon, HP, SmileDirectClub and Zoom Video

Tuesday: US and China manufacturing data; Earnings from AutoZone, Baidu, Domino’s Pizza, Hostess Brands, J.M. Smucker, Kohl’s, Target, AMC Entertainment and Salesforce

Wednesday: European inflation data; Earnings from Abercrombie & Fitch, Dine Brands, Dollar Tree, Snowflake and Victoria’s Secret

Thursday: ISM Non-Manufacturing Index; Earnings from Best Buy, Weibo, Costco and Gap

Friday: US jobs report

10-Year: Treasuries rallied to 1.902%.

Oil: The rise in oil prices is spilling over at the gas pump: The average gas price in the US has jumped 10 cents, to $3.64/gallon, in the past two weeks.

Partial SWIFT ban: Western governments put aside their hesitations and proposed banning some Russian lenders from SWIFT, the global messaging service that facilitates cross-border transactions. It’s a move that could cause turmoil across global financial markets.

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CURRENCY: Devaluation versus Depreciation

KNOW THE FINANCIAL DIFFERENCE

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BY DR. DAVID E. MARCINKO MBA CPM®

INVITE: https://medicalexecutivepost.com/dr-david-marcinkos-bookings/

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Devaluation is the deliberate downward adjustment of the value of a country’s money related to another currency, group of currencies or currency standard. It is often confused with depreciation and is the opposite of revaluation which refers to the readjustment of a currency exchange rate.

CITE: https://www.r2library.com/Resource/Title/0826102549

Definition

The government of a country may decide to devalue its currency and like depreciation it is not the result of non-governmental activities.

One reason a country made devalue its currency is to combat a trade imbalance. Devaluation reduces the cost of a country’s export rendering them more competitive in the Global market which is which in turn increases the cost of imports.

If imports are more expensive domestic consumers are less likely to purchase them further strengthening domestic businesses because exports increase and imports decrease there is typically a better balance of payments because the trade deficit shrinks. In short a country that devalue its currency can produce is difficult because there is a greater demand for cheaper exports.

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Advantages and disadvantages of devaluation - Economics Help

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In accountancy, depreciation refers to two aspects of the same concept: first, the actual decrease of fair value of an asset, such as the decrease in value of factory equipment each year as it is used and wear, and second, the allocation in accounting statements of the original cost of the assets to periods in which the assets are used (depreciation with the matching principle).

Depreciation is thus the decrease in the value of assets and the method used to reallocate, or “write down” the cost of a tangible asset (such as equipment) over its useful life span. Businesses depreciate long-term assets for both accounting and tax purposes. The decrease in value of the asset affects the balance sheet of a business or entity, and the method of depreciating the asset, accounting-wise, affects the net income, and thus the income statement that they report.

CITE: https://www.r2library.com/Resource/Title/0826102549

Generally, the cost is allocated as depreciation expense among the periods in which the asset is expected to be used.

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What is SWIFT Banking?

Belgium’s Society for Worldwide InterBank Financial Telecommunications

A TIMELY FINANCIAL TOPIC

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By Staff Reporters

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Belgium’s Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunications (SWIFT) runs a messaging service that facilitates transactions across 11,000+ financial institutions globally. Think of it as the “Gmail of global banking.”

Entities in every country except North Korea use SWIFT to shuffle trillions of dollars’ worth of funds across borders. And Russia is a SWIFT power user—as a major supplier of energy and other goods, it ranks sixth globally for payment messages sent on SWIFT. So if Russia were cut off from SWIFT, “the nation would essentially be severed from much of the global financial system,” the NYT wrote.

CITE: https://www.r2library.com/Resource/Title/0826102549

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SWIFT: https://www.swift.com/

MORE: https://www.livemint.com/news/world/what-is-swift-why-this-banking-service-could-be-a-big-weapon-against-russia-11645760070928.html

RELATED: https://www.msn.com/en-us/news/world/what-is-swift-and-why-does-it-matter-in-the-russia-ukraine-war/ar-AAUlLDv?li=BBnb7Kz

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UPDATE: The Stock Markets and IRS Online Taxpayer ID

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By Staff Reporters

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MARKETS: The S&P 500 fell into a correction for the first time in two years, joining the NASDAQ Composite, as Russia sent troops into pro-Russian regions in Ukraine. The S&P 500 index ended down 1% at 4,304.76, below the correction level at 4,316.91, which would represent a 10% drop from its January 3rd record close. A correction is commonly defined by market technicians as a fall of at least 10% (but not greater than 20%) from a recent peak. The last time the S&P 500 entered a correction was February 27th 2020, when the market was being whipsawed by fears about the outbreak of the COVID pandemic.

And, this bearish market isn’t sparing 2021 winners like Home Depot, which fell the most in nearly two years after supply-chain bottlenecks squeezed its margins. HD was the Dow’s biggest gainer last year.

CITE: https://www.r2library.com/Resource/Title/0826102549

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IRS: According to a news release issued by the IRS, taxpayers now have the option to verify their identities during live, virtual interviews with agents. The agency stresses that no bio-metric data will be required for those interviews.

However, taxpayers once again have the option to verify their identity using ID.me’s facial recognition services. Addressing privacy concerns, the IRS says new requirements are in place to ensure that images provided will be deleted upon verification. That would apply to any new IRS accounts created and those where selfies have already been collected.

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Cryptocurrency Trades and Income Taxes 2021

Virtual Currency – Real Taxation

By Staff Reporters

What you need to report to the IRS

The IRS treats virtual currencies as property, which means they’re taxed similarly to stocks. If all you did was purchase cryptocurrency with U.S. dollars, and those assets have been sitting untouched in an exchange or your cryptocurrency wallet, you shouldn’t need to worry about reporting to the IRS.

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Reporting is required when certain events come into play, most commonly:

  • Trading one cryptocurrency for another.
  • Selling cryptocurrency for fiat dollars (government-issued currency).
  • Using cryptocurrency to buy goods or services (e.g., paying for a cup of coffee with cryptocurrency).

A critical distinction to make is that triggering a taxable event doesn’t necessarily mean you’ll owe taxes, said Andrew Gordon, an Illinois-based certified public accountant and tax attorney. Just because you have to report a transaction doesn’t mean you’ll end up owing the IRS for it.

READ HERE: https://www.msn.com/en-us/money/taxes/yes-you-must-pay-taxes-on-cryptocurrency-trades-heres-how/ar-AATamDL?li=BBnb7Kz

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INHERITED Retirement Accounts and Uncle Sam

IRS Tax Implications

By Staff Reporters

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If you inherited a tax-deferred retirement plan, such as a traditional IRA, you’ll have to pay taxes on the money. But you can make the tax hit less onerous.

Spouses can roll the money into their own IRAs and postpone distributions—and taxes—until they’re 70½. All other beneficiaries who want to continue to benefit from tax-deferred growth must roll the money into a separate account known as an inherited IRA. Make sure the IRA is rolled directly into your inherited IRA. If you take a check, you won’t be allowed to deposit the money. Rather, the IRS will treat it as a distribution and you’ll owe taxes on the entire amount.

Once you’ve rolled the money into an inherited IRA, you must take required minimum distributions every year—and pay taxes on the money—based on your age and life expectancy. Deadlines are critical: You must take your first RMD by December 31st. of the year following the death of your parent (or whoever left you the account). Otherwise, you’ll be required to deplete the entire account within five years after the year following your parent’s death.

The December 31st. deadline is also important if you are one of several beneficiaries of an inherited IRA. If you fail to split the IRA among the beneficiaries by that date, your RMDs will be based on the life expectancy of the oldest beneficiary, which may force you to take larger distributions than if the RMDs were based on your age and life expectancy.

You can take out more than the RMD, but setting up an inherited IRA gives you more control over your tax liabilities. You can, for example, take the minimum amount required while you’re working, then increase withdrawals when you’re retired and in a lower tax bracket.

CITE: https://www.r2library.com/Resource/Title/0826102549

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Have you Inherited an IRA? It's time to compare your options

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Did you inherit a Roth IRA? And so, as long as the original owner funded the Roth at least five years before he or she died, you don’t have to pay taxes on the money. You can’t, however, let it grow tax-free forever. If you don’t need the money, you can transfer it to an inherited Roth IRA and take RMDs under the same rules governing a traditional inherited IRA. But with a Roth, your RMDs won’t be taxed.

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ALTERNATIVE MINIMUM TAX: Physicians Beware!

By Staff Reporters

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Alternative Minimum Tax

DEFINITION: The alternative minimum tax (AMT) is a tax imposed by the United States federal government in addition to the regular income tax for certain individuals, estates, and trusts. As of tax year 2018, the AMT raises about $5.2 billion, or 0.4% of all federal income tax revenue, affecting 0.1% of taxpayers, mostly in the upper income ranges.

CITE: https://www.r2library.com/Resource/Title/0826102549

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See the source image

Key Takeaways

  • The alternative minimum tax (AMT) ensures that certain taxpayers pay their fair share of income taxes.
  • However, the structure was not indexed to inflation or tax cuts. …
  • For those subject to AMT, there are certain strategies that can be employed to reduce your exposure to this tax.

MORE: https://www.forbes.com/sites/kellyphillipserb/2020/09/11/your-first-look-at-2021-tax-rates-projected-brackets-standard-deductions–more/?sh=119ff37413ba

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“TRICKLE DOWN” ECONOMICS

What it is – How it Works

By Staff Reporters

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DEFINITION: Trickle-down economics is a colloquial term for supply-side economic policies. In recent history, the term has been used by critics of supply-side economic policies, such as “Reaganomics”. Whereas general supply-side theory favors lowering taxes overall, trickle-down theory more specifically advocates for a lower tax burden on the upper end of the economic spectrum. Empirical evidence shows that the proposition is regressive and has never managed to achieve all of its stated goals as described by the Reagan administration.

CITE: https://www.r2library.com/Resource/Title/082610254

SAY’S LAW: In classical economics, Say’s law, or the law of markets, is the claim that the production of a product creates demand for another product by providing something of value which can be exchanged for that other product. Thus, production is the source of demand

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Trickle-up And Trickle-down Economics - The Financial Pandora

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PODCAST: https://www.bing.com/videos/search?q=what+is+trickle+down+economics%3f&&view=detail&mid=EEBE43A22EFCD31576BDEEBE43A22EFCD31576BD&&FORM=VRDGAR&ru=%2Fvideos%2Fsearch%3Fq%3Dwhat%2Bis%2Btrickle%2Bdown%2Beconomics%253f%26FORM%3DHDRSC3

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CITE: https://www.r2library.com/Resource/Title/0826102549

About the Laffer Curve

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About the Laffer Curve

What it is – How it works
By staff reporters

DEFINITION:

In economics, the Laffer curve is a representation of the relationship between rates of taxation and the resulting levels of government revenue.

The Laffer curve claims to illustrate the concept of taxable income elasticity—i.e., taxable income will change in response to changes in the rate of taxation.

CITE: https://www.r2library.com/Resource/Title/082610254

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HISTORY:

The Laffer Curve is a theory developed by supply-side economist Arthur Laffer to show the relationship between tax rates and the amount of tax revenue collected by governments.

The curve is used to illustrate Laffer’s main premise that the more an activity such as production is taxed, the less of it is generated. Likewise, the less an activity is taxed, the more of it is generated.

MORE: https://www.investopedia.com/terms/l/laffercurve.asp

Conclusion

Your thoughts and comments on this ME-P are appreciated. Feel free to review our top-left column, and top-right sidebar materials, links, URLs and related websites, too. Then, subscribe to the ME-P. It is fast, free and secure.

Speaker: If you need a moderator or speaker for an upcoming event, Dr. David E. Marcinko; MBA – Publisher-in-Chief of the Medical Executive-Post – is available for seminar or speaking engagements. https://medicalexecutivepost.com/dr-david-marcinkos-bookings/

Contact: MarcinkoAdvisors@msn.com

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IRS TAX DEDUCTION: Home [Medical] Office

By Staff Reporters

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SYNOPSIS: The home office deduction allows qualified taxpayers to deduct certain home expenses when they file taxes. And, now that some doctors and many of us are working remotely, you may be wondering whether working from home will yield any tax breaks. If your small medical or healthcare consulting or other business qualifies you for a home office tax deduction, should you be concerned about triggering an audit? How does a business qualify in the first place; etc?

CITE: https://www.r2library.com/Resource/Title/082610254

Well, to claim the home office deduction on their 2021 tax return, taxpayers generally must exclusively and regularly use part of their home or a separate structure on their property as their primary place of business.

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Home Office Tax Deduction| White Coat Investor

If I work from home, do I qualify for a home office tax deduction?

If you’re an employee working remotely rather than an employer or business owner, you unfortunately don’t qualify for the home office tax deduction (however, please note that it is still available to some as a state tax deduction). Prior to the Tax Cuts and Job Acts (TCJA) tax reform passed in 2017, employees could deduct unreimbursed employee business expenses, which included the home office deduction. However, for tax years 2018 through 2025, the itemized deduction for employee business expenses has been eliminated.

If I’m self-employed, should I take the home office tax deduction?

You may have heard that taking the home office deduction sends a red flag to the IRS and ups your chances of being audited. Although there may have been some merit to this advice in the past, changes in the tax rules in the late 1990s made it easier for people who work out of their homes to qualify for these write-offs. So if you qualify, by all means, take it.

Do I qualify for the home office tax deduction?

Generally speaking, to qualify for the home office deduction, you must meet one of these criteria:

  • Exclusive and regular use: You must use a portion of your house, apartment, condominium, mobile home, boat or similar structure for your business on a regular basis. This also includes structures on your property, such as an unattached studio, barn, greenhouse or garage. It doesn’t include any part of a taxpayer’s property used exclusively as a hotel, motel, inn, or similar business.
  • Principal place of business: Your home office must be either the principal location of your business or a place where you regularly meet with customers or clients. Some exceptions to this rule include day care and storage facilities.

What is “exclusive use”?

The biggest roadblock to qualifying for these deductions is that you must use a portion of your home exclusively and regularly for your business.

The law is clear and the IRS is serious about the exclusive-use requirement. Say you set aside a room in your home for a full-time business and you work in it ten hours a day, seven days a week. If you let your children use the office to do their homework, you violate the exclusive-use requirement and forfeit the chance for home office deductions.

The exclusive-use rule doesn’t mean:

  • You’re forbidden to make a personal phone call from the office.
  • You have to rush outside whenever a family member needs a moment of your time.

Although individual IRS auditors may be more or less strict on this point, some advisers say you meet the spirit of the exclusive-use test as long as personal activities invade the home office no more than they would be permitted to in an office building. The office can also be a section of a room if the division is clear — thanks to a partition, for example — and you can show that personal activities are excluded from the business section.

What is “regular use”?

There’s no specific definition of what constitutes regular use. Clearly, if you use an otherwise empty room only occasionally and its use is incidental to your business, you’d fail this test. If you work in the home office a few hours or so each day, however, you might pass. This test is applied to the facts and circumstances of each case the IRS challenges.

What does “principal place of business” mean?

In addition to passing the exclusive- and regular-use tests, your home office must be either the principal location of that business or a place for regular customer or client meetings.

If your home office is in a separate, unattached structure — a detached garage converted into an office, for example — you don’t have to meet the principal-place-of-business or the deal-with-clients test. As long as you pass the exclusive- and regular-use tests, you can qualify for home business write-offs.

What if your business has just one home office, but you do most of your work elsewhere?

Remember that the requirement is that your home office is your principal place of business, not your principal workplace. As long as you use the home office to conduct your administrative or management chores and you don’t make substantial use of any other fixed location to conduct those tasks, you can pass this test.

If you’re an employee of another company but also have your own part-time business based in your home, you can pass this test even if you spend much more time at the office where you work as an employee.

This rule makes it much easier to claim home office deductions for individuals who conduct most of their income-earning activities somewhere else (such as outside salespeople or tradespeople).

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29 Dr.'s Office ideas | doctor office, office design, chiropractic office

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What qualifies as a business?

As with the regular-use test, whether your endeavors qualify as a business depends on the facts and circumstances. The more substantial the activities, in terms of time and effort invested and income generated, the more likely you are to pass the test.

Making money from your efforts is a prerequisite, but for purposes of this tax break, profit alone isn’t necessarily enough. If you use your den solely to take care of your personal investment portfolio, for example, you can’t claim home office deductions because your activities as an investor don’t qualify as a business.

Taxpayers who use a home office exclusively to manage rental properties may qualify for home office tax status but as property managers rather than investors.

What if I operate a child care or storage facility?

The exclusive-use test doesn’t apply if you use part of your house to:

  • Provide day care services for children, older adults or individuals with disabilities. If you care for children in your home between 7 a.m. and 6 p.m. each day, for example, you can use that part of the house for personal activities the rest of the time and still claim business deductions. To qualify for the tax break, your home care business must meet any applicable state and local licensing requirements.
  • Store product samples or inventory you sell in your business. Assume your home-based business is the retail sale of home-cleaning products and that you regularly use half of your basement to store inventory. Occasionally using that part of the basement to store personal items wouldn’t cancel your home office deduction. To qualify for this exception, your home must be the principal location of your business.

How do I calculate the home office tax deduction?

Your home office business deductions are based on either the percentage of your home used for the business or a simplified square footage calculation.

The most exact way to calculate the business percentage of your house is to measure the square footage devoted to your home office as a percentage of the total area of your home. If the office measures 150 square feet, for example, and the total area of the house is 1,200 square feet, your business percentage would be 12.5%.

An easier calculation is acceptable if the rooms in your home are all about the same size. In that case, you can figure out the business percentage by dividing the number of rooms used in your business by the total number of rooms in the house.

Special rules apply if you qualify for home office deductions under the day care exception to the exclusive-use test.

  • Your business-use percentage must be reduced because the space is available for personal use part of the time.
  • To do that, you compare the number of hours the child care business is operated, including preparation and cleanup time, to the total number of hours in the year (8,760).

Assume you use 40% of your house for a nursing daycare business that operates 12 hours a day, five days a week for 50 weeks of the year.

  • 12 hours x 5 days x 50 weeks = 3,000 hours per year.
  • 3,000 hours ÷ 8,760 total hours in the year = 0.34 (34%) of available hours.
  • 34% of available hours x 40% of the house used for business = 13.6% business write-off percentage.

Simplified square footage method

Beginning with 2013 tax returns, the IRS began offering a simplified option for claiming the deduction. This new method uses a prescribed rate multiplied by the allowable square footage used in the home.

  • For 2021, the prescribed rate is $5 per square foot with a maximum of 300 square feet.
  • If the office measures 150 square feet, for example, then the deduction would be $750 (150 x $5).
  • The space must still be dedicated to business activities.

With either method, the qualification for the home office deduction is determined each year. Your eligibility may change from one year to the next. Finally, please note that only certain expenses such as rent, mortgage interest and property taxes qualify for the deduction, and the deduction is limited to $10,000.

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PODCASTS: Medicare Cost Reports Explained

By Eric Bricker MD

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PODCAST: Medicare Bad Debt Reimbursement: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LMa4at0wlRU

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DOCTORS & TAX DEDUCTIONS: Top Ten [10] Most Over-Looked

By Staff Reporters

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IRS Lists Top 10 Criminal Tax Investigations in 2021 - Small Business Trends

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The most recent numbers show that more than 45 million of us itemized deductions on our 1040s—claiming $1.2 trillion dollars’ worth of tax deductions. That’s right: $1,200,000,000,000!  That same year, taxpayers who claimed the standard deduction accounted for $747 billion. Some of those who took the easy way out probably shortchanged themselves. (If you turned age 65 in 2021 or earlier, remember that you deserve a bigger standard deduction than younger folks.)

Here are our 10 most overlooked tax deductions. Claim them if you deserve them, and keep more money in your pocket. Good advice for all physicians, nurse and medical professionals, too.

1. State sales taxes

This write-off makes sense primarily for those who live in states that do not impose an income tax. Especially Alaska, Florida, Nevada, New Hampshire, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Washington, and Wyoming. Here’s why this is a factor. You must choose between deducting state and local income taxes or state and local sales taxes. For most citizens of income-taxing-states, the state and local income tax deduction is usually the better deal.

For those of you in an income-tax free state, there are two ways to claim the sales tax deduction on your tax return. One, you can use the IRS tables provided for your state to determine what you can deduct. In addition, if you purchased a vehicle, boat, airplane, home or did major home renovations, you may be able to add the state sales tax you paid on these items to the amount shown in the IRS tables up to the limit for your state. Or two, you can you can keep track of all of the sales tax you paid throughout the year and use that.

The best way to see what you can deduct is to use the IRS’s Sales Tax Calculator for this. Keep in mind, the total of your itemized deductions for all of your state and local taxes is limited to $10,000 per year.

2. Reinvested dividends

This isn’t really a tax deduction, but it is a subtraction that can save you a lot of money. And it’s one that many taxpayers miss. If, like most investors, you have mutual fund dividends automatically invested in extra shares, remember that each reinvestment increases your “tax basis” in the stock or mutual fund. That, in turn, reduces the amount of taxable capital gain (or increases the tax-saving loss) when you sell your shares.

Forgetting to include the reinvested dividends in your cost basis—which you subtract from the proceeds of sale to determine your gain—means overpaying your taxes.

3. Out-of-pocket charitable contributions

It’s hard to overlook the big charitable gifts you made during the year by check or payroll deduction. But the little things add up, too, and you can write off out-of-pocket costs you incur while doing good deeds. Ingredients for casseroles you regularly prepare for a qualified nonprofit organization’s soup kitchen, for example, or the cost of stamps you buy for your school’s fundraiser count as a charitable contribution. If you drove your car for charity in 2021, remember to deduct 14 cents per mile.

4. Student loan interest paid by you or someone else

In the past, if parents or someone else paid back a medical school or other loan incurred by a student, no one got a tax break. To get a deduction, the law said that you had to be both liable for the debt and actually pay it yourself. But now there’s an exception. You may know that you might be eligible to take a deduction but even if someone else pays back the loan, the IRS treats it as though they gave you the  money, and you then paid the debt. So, a student who’s not claimed as a dependent can qualify to deduct up to $2,500 of student loan interest paid by you or by someone else.

5. Moving expenses

While most taxpayers lost the ability to deduct moving expenses beginning in 2018, one main group of people who can still claim their moving expenses to the IRS. Who are they? Military personnel. If you’re an active duty military member who is relocating, you can still deduct these expenses —if you don’t receive reimbursement from the government for the move.

Also, as long as the move is permanent —and your relocation was ordered by the military — you don’t have to pay tax on qualified moving expense reimbursements. So start getting those receipts out now – because you can claim travel and lodging expenses for you and your family, moving household goods, and the costs for shipping your cars and your beloved pets! And that’s good news for the men and women we thank for bravely serving our country.

Sam (1)

6. Child and Dependent Care Tax Credit

A tax credit is so much better than a tax deduction—it reduces your tax bill dollar for dollar. So missing one is even more painful than missing a deduction that simply reduces the amount of income that’s subject to tax.

But it’s easy to overlook the Child and Dependent Care Credit if you pay your child care bills through a reimbursement account at work. For 2020, the law allows you to run up to $5,000 of such expenses through a tax-favored reimbursement account at work. Up to $6,000 in care expenses can qualify for the credit, but the $5,000 from a tax favored account can’t be used. So if you run the maximum $5,000 through a plan at work but spend more for work-related child care, you can claim the credit on up to an extra $1,000. That would cut your tax bill by at least $200 using the minimum 20 percent of the expenses. The credit percentage goes up for lower income households.

However, there are big changes for 2021, The American Rescue Plan signed into law on March 11, 2021 brought significant changes to the amount and way that the child and dependent care tax credit can be claimed only for tax year 2021. The new law not only increases the credit, but also the amount of taxpayers that will benefit from the credit’s highest rate and it also makes it fully refundable.  This means that, unlike previous years, you can still get the credit even if you don’t owe taxes. Changes to the Child and Dependent Care Credit that apply only for tax year 2021 (the taxes you file in 2022) include:

  • The highest credit percentage increased from 35% to 50% of qualifying expenses
  • Qualifying child and dependent care expenses increased from $3,000 to $8,000 for one qualifying person and from $6,000 to $16,000 for two or more qualifying individuals
  • The adjusted gross income (AGI) level at which the credit percentage is reduced is increased from $15,000 to $125,000

For example, prior to the 2021 tax year, a taxpayer with one qualifying person, $3,000 in qualifying expenses and an AGI of $60,000 would qualify for a nonrefundable credit of approximately $600 (20% x $3,000). By contrast, under the new law for tax year 2021 only, a taxpayer with the same circumstances can potentially claim a refundable credit of approximately $1,500 (50% x $3,000).

Also for tax year 2021, the maximum amount that can be contributed to a dependent care flexible spending account and the amount of tax-free employer-provided dependent care benefits is increased from $5,000 to $10,500.

7. Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC)

Millions of lower-income people take this credit every year. However, 25% of taxpayers who are eligible for the Earned Income Tax Credit fail to claim it, according to the IRS. Some people miss out on the credit because the rules can be complicated. Others simply aren’t aware that they qualify.

The EITC is a refundable tax credit—not a deduction— with maximum amounts for different filing statuses ranging from $1,502 to $6,728 for 2021. The credit is designed to supplement wages for low-to-moderate income workers. But the credit doesn’t just apply to lower income people. Tens of millions of individuals and families previously classified as “middle class”—including many medical colleagues and white-collar workers—are now considered “low income” because they:

  • lost a job
  • took a pay cut
  • or worked fewer hours during the year

The exact refund you receive depends on your income, marital status and family size. To get a refund from the EITC you must file a tax return, even if you don’t owe any taxes. Moreover, if you were eligible to claim the credit in the past but didn’t, you can file any time during the year to claim an EITC refund for up to three previous tax years.

8. State tax you paid last spring

Did you owe taxes when you filed your 2020 state tax return in 2021? Then remember to include that amount with your state tax itemized deduction on your 2021 return, along with state income taxes withheld from your paychecks or paid via quarterly estimated payments. Beginning in 2018, the deduction for state and local taxes is limited to a maximum of $10,000 per year.

9. Refinancing mortgage points

When you buy a house, you often get to deduct points paid to obtain your mortgage all at one time. When you refinance a mortgage, however, you have to deduct the points over the life of the loan. That means you can deduct 1/30th of the points a year if it’s a 30-year mortgage—that’s $33 a year for each $1,000 of points you paid. Doesn’t seem like much, but why throw it away?

Also, in the year you pay off the loan—because you sell the house or refinance again—you get to deduct all the points not yet deducted, unless you refinance with the same lender.

10. Jury pay paid to employer

Some employers continue to pay employees’ full salary while they are doing their civic duty, but ask that they turn over their jury fees to the company. The only problem is that the IRS demands that you report those fees as taxable income. If you give the money to your employer you have a right to deduct the amount so you aren’t taxed on money that simply passes through your hands.

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ON: IRS TAX Letter 6475

What it is?

By Staff Reporters

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Some doctors and other taxpayers may receive IRS Letter 6475, which references the third Economic Impact Payment. While most recipients eligible for this stimulus check have already received their money in full, some taxpayers might now be eligible or entitled to more money based on their 2021 tax information by claiming a Recovery Rebate Credit on their upcoming tax return. Those people will need this form to confirm how much of the third stimulus check they already received from the government, if they received any at all. Learn more here.

REFERENCE: https://www.irs.gov/newsroom/irs-sending-information-letters-to-recipients-of-advance-child-tax-credit-payments-and-third-economic-impact-payments

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HEALTHCARE MERGERS & ACQUISITIONS: 2021 in Review

By Staff Reporters

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Healthcare Partnerships – 5 Takeaways

 •  This year had the largest percentage of announced “mega merger” transactions in the last six years at 16.3% and, in more than one out of every 10 transactions, the smaller partner had a credit rating of A- or higher in 2021.
 •  Since 2011, average smaller partner size by annual revenue has increased at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of approximately 8.0%.
 •  Transactions involving a not-for-profit partner represented 87% of announced transactions.
 •  Transactions involving rural or urban/rural sellers increased to 31% of announced transactions.

Source: KaufmanHall, January 10, 2022

CITE: https://www.r2library.com/Resource/Title/082610254

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Comprehensive Financial Planning and Risk Management Strategies for Doctors and their Advisors

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Best Practices from Leading Consultants and Certified Medical Planners

SPONSOR: http://www.CertifiedMedicalPlanner.org

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Risk Management, Liability Insurance, and Asset Protection Strategies for Doctors and Advisors: Best Practices from Leading Consultants and Certified Medical Planners™

ORDER: https://www.routledge.com/Risk-Management-Liability-Insurance-and-Asset-Protection-Strategies-for/Marcinko-Hetico/p/book/9781498725989

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IRS Advanced Child Tax Credit Payments Letter 6419

By Staff Reporters

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See the source image

The IRS Tax Letter 6419 has been sent out to families who received the Child Tax Credit in 2021 and it explains how the advance tax credit will affect your filing this year. This may be of special importance to young physicians, nurses and all younger medical professionals.

READ: https://www.irs.gov/individuals/understanding-your-letter-6419

CITE: https://www.r2library.com/Resource/Title/082610254

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SOME TAX BENEFITS: Senior Healthcare Professionals

By Staff Reporters

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See the source image

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Tax planning can be quite a tedious process, but there are benefits for all seniors to make it less taxing. And senor medical professionals should take particular note:

  • Free Advice: IRS-certified volunteers will help older taxpayers with tax return preparation and electronic filing between January 1st and April 15th each year.
  • No Withdrawal Penalties: Anyone aged 59 years or over can withdraw money from an IRA, without incurring the common 10% tax.
  • Catch-Up Contributions: Healthcare Workers aged 50 or older can defer income tax on an extra $6,500 or a total of $26,000 if contributed to a 401(k) plan, resulting in a tax savings of $6,240 for an older worker in the 24% tax bracket.
  • Additional IRA Contribution: Workers age 50 and older can contribute an additional $1,000 to an IRA, or a total of $7,000 in 2020.
  • CITE: https://www.r2library.com/Resource/Title/082610254

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IRS Tax Reduction Issues for Self-Employed Physician Executives

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By Dr. David Edward Marcinko MBA CMP®

SPONSOR: http://www.CertifiedMedicalPlanner.org


INTRODUCTION

Whether you do contract work or have your own small business, tax deductions for the self-employed physician consultant and/or medical executive or nurse consultant, etc., can add up to substantial tax savings.

Welcome Tax Season: https://www.msn.com/en-us/money/taxes/tax-season-2022-irs-now-accepting-tax-returns-what-to-know-before-filing-taxes-about-your-refund/ar-AAT53rR?li=BBnb7Kz


With self-employment comes freedom, responsibility, and a lot of expense. While most self-employed people celebrate the first two, they cringe at the latter, especially at tax time. They might not be aware of some of the tax write-offs to which they are entitled.

When it comes time to file your returns, don’t hesitate to claim the benefits you get for being the boss. As a self-employed success story, you’ve earned them.

FORM 1099 NEC: Form 1099 NEC is one of several IRS tax forms used in the United States to prepare and file an information return to report various types of income other than wages, salaries, and tips. The term information return is used in contrast to the term tax return although the latter term is sometimes used colloquially to describe both kinds of returns.

READ: https://turbotax.intuit.com/tax-tips/self-employment-taxes/how-to-file-taxes-with-irs-form-1099-misc/L3UAsiVBq?tblci=GiC9aWPDzN9yXLpSuE8LDo3YRMDPuoFwO9ycCY6qixKJ8CC8ykEo94-H7prplp7cAQ

CITE: https://www.r2library.com/Resource/Title/082610254

“Many times an overlooked deduction is educational expenses. If one is taking courses or buying research material to be more effective in their work, this can be deductible.”

Individual Retirement Plans (IRAs)

One of the best tax write-offs for the self-employed physician consultant is a retirement plan. A person with no employees can set up an individual 401 (k). “You can contribute $19,500 in 2021 as a 401(k) deferral, plus 25 percent of net income.”

If you have employees, consider a SIMPLE (Savings Incentive Match Plan for Employees) IRA—an IRA-based plan that gives small employers a simplified method to make contributions to their employees’ retirement. As of 2021, an employee may defer up to $13,500 and employees over 50 may contribute an additional $3,000.

“A third retirement plan is Simplified Employee Pension IRA (SEP IRA).” The employer may contribute the lesser of 25 percent of income or $58,000 in 2021. If the employer has eligible employees, an equal percentage of their income must be contributed.

Recall that retirement plans are “absolutely the No. 1 tax deduction. The government is helping fund retirement.”

Business use of home or dwelling

Now, most self-employed taxpayers’ businesses start as home-based businesses. These people need to know portions of business costs are deductible and so “It is very important that you keep track of expenses relating to your housing costs.”

If your gross income from your business exceeds your total expenses, then you can deduct all of your expenses related to the business use of your home. If your gross income is less than your total expenses, your deduction will be limited to the difference between your gross income and the sum of all business expenses you would pay if the business was not in your home. Those expenses could include telephone lines, the Internet, and other costs to do business.

You must also have a home office that is truly used for work and the Internal Revenue Service may require you to document this.

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Deducting automobile expenses

If you travel for business, even short distances within your own city, you may deduct the dollar value of business miles traveled on your tax return. The taxpayer may file the actual expense s/he incurred, or use the standard mileage rate prescribed by the IRS, which is 56 cents as of 2021. The IRS allowable mileage rates should be checked every year as they can change.

“If you decide to use actual car expenses, be sure to include payments, depreciation, registration, insurance, garage rent, licenses, repairs and maintenance, and parking and toll fees.” AND, “If you decide to use the standard mileage rate, it would be in your best interest to keep a log—daily, weekly or monthly—of miles driven to distinguish personal use from business use.”

Depreciation of property and equipment

Some self-employed people may purchase property and equipment for a business. If they expect that property to last longer than one year, it should be depreciated on the tax return.

Claims regarding property, according to the IRS, must meet the following criteria: You must own the property and it must be used or held to generate income. The property should have an estimated useful life, meaning you should be able to guess how long you can generate income with it. It may not have a useful life of one year or less, and may not be purchased and disposed of in the same year.

Certain repairs on property used for business may also be deducted.

Educational expenses

Any educational expense is potentially tax-deductible.

“Many times an overlooked deduction is educational expenses. “If one is taking courses or buying research material to be more effective in their work, this can be deductible.”

Think about any books, web courses, local college courses, or other classes or materials that you have purchased to improve your job or business. It’s easy to forget a work-related webinar or business e-book that was purchased online, so remember to save e-receipts.

Also recall that subscriptions to trade or professional publications and donations to business organizations, both of which are frequently necessary for the continuation and growth of your business.

Other areas to explore

Other deductions that can be easily missed are advertising and promotional expenses, banking fees, and air, bus, or train fare. Restaurant meals and other entertainment costs may be written off as long as they are necessary business expenses.

And, consider health insurance premiums, which in most cases represent a credit rather than a tax deduction. “A credit goes directly against one’s taxes, rather than a reduction of income.”

Regardless of which expenses you discover that you may write off, the most important thing is to keep accurate records throughout the year. Save receipts, including e-mail receipts, and file or log them so you have easy access to them at tax time. Not only does keeping receipts, mileage logs, and other expense records make filing taxes easier, but it also facilitates a system that allows you to track changes from year to year.

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Long-term tax-saving strategies

Don’t just look at last-minute write-offs when considering self-employment tax deductions. Think about laying down some long-term strategies for money savings from year to year—particularly if you are a high earner.

“Accountants typically tell you what you have to pay but they don’t always tell you strategies to reduce your payments.”

To reduce your gross taxable income, consider setting up a defined-benefit pension plan. This plan is based on your age and income: The older you are and the higher your earnings, the more you are allowed to contribute. An alternative plan is an age-weighted profit-sharing plan, which is similar and can benefit those who have several employees.

Another strategy for high-earning business owners who own their own building through a limited liability company or similar business structure is to pay themselves rent. This rent is used to pay down the mortgage, but it is also considered a business expense for tax purposes.

Self-employed professionals required to have liability insurance should consider setting up their own insurance company. A captive insurance company is one that insures the risks of the business—or businesses, in the case of a cooperative. Its premiums can be tax-deductible.

But, if money accumulates and claims are minimal, the money taken out is taxable under capital gains. This is not a retirement strategy, but that it can save you money by allowing you to “pay yourself” instead of an insurance company and still deduct the premiums.

Assessment

With any of these more complicated, long-term strategies, consult with a business attorney, CPA/EA or financial planner to ensure you have the best plan possible for your business.

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CAPITAL GAINS UPDATE: https://wordpress.com/post/medicalexecutivepost.com/251470

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MORE Personal BUDGET Rules for Doctors

Personal Physician Budgeting Rules

BY DR. DAVID E. MARCINKO MBA CMP®

CMP logo

SPONSOR: http://www.CertifiedMedicalPlanner.org

Budgeting is probably one of the greatest tools in building wealth. However, it is also one of the greatest weaknesses among physicians who tend to live a certain lifestyle. This includes living in an exclusive neighborhood, driving an expensive car, wearing imported suits and a fine watch, all of which do not lend themselves to expense budgeting. Only one in ten medical professionals has a personal budget. Fear, or a lack of knowledge, is a major cause of procrastination.

The following guidelines will assist in this microeconomic endeavor:

  1. Set reasonable goals and estimate annual income. Do not keep large amounts of cash at     home, or in the office. Deposit it in a money market account for safety and interest.
  1. Do not pay bills early, do not have more taxes withheld from your salary than you owe, and develop spending estimates and budget fixed expenses first. Fixed expenses are usually contractual, and may include housing, utilities, food, telephone, social security, medical, debt repayment, homeowner’ or renter’s insurance, auto, life and disability insurance, and maintenance, etc.
  1. Make variable expenses a priority. Variable expenses are not usually contractual, and may include clothing, education, recreational, travel, vacation, gas, entertainment, gifts, furnishings, savings, investments, etc.
  1. Trim variable expenses by 10-15 percent, and fixed expenses, when possible. Ultimately, all fixed expenses get paid and become variable in the long run.
  1. Use carve-out or set-asides for big ticket items and differentiate “wants from needs.”
  1. Know the difference between saving and investing. Savers tend to be risk adverse and     investors understand risk and takes steps to mitigate it.
  1. Determine shortfalls or excesses with the budget period.
  1. Track actual expenses.
  1. Calculate both income and expenses as a percentage of the total, and determine if there    is a better way to allocate resources. Then, review the budget on a monthly basis to determine if there is a variance. Determine if the variance was avoidable, unavoidable, or a result of inaccurate assumptions, and take needed corrective action.

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How to budget for medical expenses

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Verify Your Budget and Follow a Financial Plan

The process of establishing a budget relies heavily on guesswork, and the use of software or “apps”, that seamlessly track expenditures and help your budget and your financial plan become more of reality. Most doctors underestimate their true expenses, so lumping and best guesses on expense usually prove very inaccurate. Personal financial software and mobile phone applications make the verification of budgets easier. Once your personal accounts are setup, free apps like MINT.com will let give you a detailed report on where your money is going and the adjustments you must make. Few professions make larger contributions to the Internal Revenue Service than physicians and the medical profession. It is very important to categorize different budget categories not only to be proactive about your expenses, but also to accurately reflect the effect your different expenditures have on your real savings capability. All expense dollars are not equal.

For example, a mortgage payment, which is mostly interest expense in the early years, is likewise mostly tax deductible. Spending money on your family vacation is typically not tax deductible. Itemized deductions, which are deductions that a US taxpayer can claim on their tax return in order to reduce their Adjustable Gross Income (AGI), may include such costs as property taxes, vehicle registration fees, income taxes, mortgage expense, investment interest, charitable contributions, medical expenses (to the extent the expenses exceed 10% of the taxpayers AGI) and more.

Employing a qualified certified medical planneR® that utilizes a cash-flow based financial planning software program may help the physician identify their actual after-tax projected cash flow and more accurately plan their future.

ASSESSMENT: Your thoughts are appreciated.

Comprehensive Financial Planning Strategies for Doctors and Advisors: Best Practices from Leading Consultants and Certified Medical Planners™

ORDER TEXTBOOK: https://www.routledge.com/Comprehensive-Financial-Planning-Strategies-for-Doctors-and-Advisors-Best/Marcinko-Hetico/p/book/9781482240283

INVITE DR. MARCINKO: https://medicalexecutivepost.com/dr-david-marcinkos-

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2021 TAXES: 8 Things All Physicians Must Know

By Staff Reporters

CITE: https://www.r2library.com/Resource/Title/082610254

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Here are eight things to keep in mind as you prepare to file your 2021 taxes.

1. Income tax brackets have shifted a bit

There are still seven tax rates, but the income ranges (tax brackets) for each rate have shifted slightly to account for inflation. For 2021, the following rates and income ranges apply:

Tax rateTaxable income brackets: Single filersTaxable income brackets: Married couples filing jointly (and qualifying widows or widowers) 
10%$0 to $9,950$0 to $19,900
12%$9,951 to $40,525$19,901 to $81,050
22%$40,526 to $86,375$81,051 to $172,750
24%$86,376 to $164,925$172,751 to $329,850
32%$164,926 to $209,425$329,851 to $418,850
35%$209,426 to $523,600$418,851 to $628,300
37%$523,601 or more$628,301 or more

Source: Internal Revenue Service

2. The standard deduction has increased slightly

After an inflation adjustment, the 2021 standard deduction has increased slightly to $12,550 for single filers and married couples filing separately and $18,800 for single heads of household, who are generally unmarried with one or more dependents. For married couples filing jointly, the standard deduction has risen to $25,100.

3. Itemized deductions remain the same

For most filers, taking the higher standard deduction is more practical and saves the hassle of keeping track of receipts. But if you have enough tax-deductible expenses, you might benefit from itemizing.

The following rules for itemized deductions haven’t changed much for 2021, but they’re still worth pointing out.

  • State and local taxes: The deduction for state and local income taxes, property taxes, and real estate taxes is capped at $10,000. 
  • Mortgage interest deduction: The mortgage interest deduction is limited to $750,000 of indebtedness. But people who had $1,000,000 of home mortgage debt before December 16, 2017, will still be able to deduct the interest on that loan. 
  • Medical expenses: Only medical expenses that exceed 7.5% of adjusted gross income (AGI) can be deducted in 2021. 
  • Charitable donations: The cash donation limit of 100% of AGI remains in place for 2021, if donations were made to operating charities.1
  • Miscellaneous deductions: No miscellaneous itemized deductions are allowed. 
     

4. IRA and 401(k) contribution limits remain the same 

The traditional IRA and Roth contribution limits in 2021 remain the same as in 2020. Individuals can contribute up to $6,000 to an IRA, and those age 50 and older also qualify to make an additional $1,000 catch-up contribution. If you’re able to max out your IRA, consider doing so—you may qualify to deduct some or all of your contribution.

The 2021 contribution limit for 401(k) accounts also stays at $19,500. If you’re age 50 or older, you qualify to make an additional $6,500 catch-up contribution as well.

5. You can save a bit more in your health savings account (HSA) 

For 2021, the max you can contribute into an HSA is $3,600 for an individual (up $50 from 2020) and $7,200 for a family (up $100). People age 55 and older can contribute an extra $1,000 catch-up contribution.

To be eligible for an HSA, you must be enrolled in a high-deductible health plan (which usually has lower premiums as well). Learn more about the benefits of an HSA

6. The Child Tax Credit has been expanded 

For 2021, the American Rescue Plan Act (ARPA) has temporarily modified the Child Tax Credit requirements and amounts for household incomes below $75,000 for single filers and $150,000 for married filing jointly. 

First, the ARPA has raised the age limit for dependents from 16 to 17. In addition, the child tax credit has increased from $2,000 to $3,000 for children age 6 through 17 and up to $3,600 for children under 6. If your income exceeded the above limits but was below $200,000 for single filers or $400,000 for joint filers, you’ll receive the standard child tax credit of $2,000 per child. 

The IRS began sending monthly advance Child Tax Credit payments to eligible families in July and sent its last advance in December. If your dependent didn’t qualify for the child tax credit, you may still qualify for up to $500 of tax credits under the “credit for other dependents” (see IRS Publication 972 for more details). Tax credits, which reduce the tax you owe dollar for dollar, are generally better than deductions, which reduce your taxable income. 

7. The alternative minimum tax (AMT) exemption has gone up

Until the AMT exemption enacted by the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act expires in 2025, the AMT will continue to affect mostly households with incomes over $500,000. Still, the AMT has investment implications for some high earners. 

For 2021, the AMT exemptions are $73,600 for single filers and $114,600 for married taxpayers filing jointly. The phase-out thresholds are $1,047,200 for married taxpayers filing a joint return and $523,600 for all other taxpayers.  

8. The estate tax exemption is even higher

The estate and gift tax exemption, which is indexed to inflation, has risen to $11.7 million for 2021. But the now-higher exemption is set to expire at the end of 2025, meaning it could be essentially cut in half at that time if Congress doesn’t act. 

The annual gift exclusion, which allows you to give money to your loved ones each year without incurring any tax liability or using up any of your lifetime estate and gift tax exemption, stays at $15,000 per recipient.

Don’t get caught off guard

As you prepare to file your taxes for 2021, here are a few additional items to consider. 

  • If you’re not retired, the 10% early withdrawal penalty that was waived for retirement account distributions in 2020 has been reinstated for 2021.
  • If you’re age 72 or older, make sure you’ve taken your required minimum distribution (RMD) from your retirement accounts or else you face a 50% penalty on any undistributed funds (unless it’s your first RMD, in which case, you can wait until April 1, 2022).

If you haven’t contributed to your retirement accounts already, now is the time. Review your earnings for the year and take advantage of any deductions that can lower your tax bill. Also, keep an eye on Washington for any last-minute tax changes that could affect your return before you file. Tax season will be here before you know it, and it’s never too early to start preparing.

1Operating charities, or qualifying public charities, are defined by Internal Revenue Code section 170(b)(1)(A). You can use the Tax Exempt Organization Search tool on IRS.gov to check an organization’s eligibility.

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MORE: https://www.msn.com/en-us/money/taxes/a-historically-underfunded-irs-is-preparing-for-a-rough-tax-season-and-only-has-1-person-for-every-16000-calls-it-gets/ar-AASFVds?li=BBnb7Kz

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PODCAST: Explaining Relative Value Units As a Physician

By Business Savvy Physician

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HEALTH ECONOMICS CITE: https://www.r2library.com/Resource/Title/0826102549

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New 2022 Mileage Tax Rates

Automobile Business Deductions

2022 IRS Mileage Reimbursement Rate

Here are the 2022 IRS mileage reimbursement rates for businesses, individuals, and other organizations:

  • 58.5 cents per mile driven for business use. This is an increase of 2.5 cents from the 2021 rate.
  • 18 cents per mile driven for medical or moving purposes for qualified active-duty members of the Armed Forces. This is up by 2 cents from the 2021 rate.
  • 14 cents per mile driven in service of charitable organizations. Because the rate is set by statute it hasn’t changed from the 2021 rate.

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Conclusion

Your thoughts and comments on this ME-P are appreciated. Feel free to review our top-left column, and top-right sidebar materials, links, URLs and related websites, too. Then, subscribe to the ME-P. It is fast, free and secure.

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Speaker: If you need a moderator or speaker for an upcoming event, Dr. David E. Marcinko; MBA – Publisher-in-Chief of the Medical Executive-Post – is available for seminar or speaking engagements. Contact: MarcinkoAdvisors@msn.com

OUR OTHER PRINT BOOKS AND RELATED INFORMATION SOURCES:

DICTIONARIES: http://www.springerpub.com/Search/marcinko
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FINANCE: Financial Planning for Physicians and Advisors
INSURANCE: Risk Management and Insurance Strategies for Physicians and Advisors

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PODCAST: Accounting Deception in Health Care

Examples of Exploitation and Deception?

BY ERIC BRICKER MD

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TERMS: https://medicalexecutivepost.com/2021/11/02/financial-terms-and-definitions-all-physician-should-know/

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HEALTH ECONOMICS CITE: https://www.r2library.com/Resource/Title/0826102549

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2021-Tax Hits on Distributed Stock Market Gains

Doctors Must Understand the Tax Man

By Staff Reporters

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Mutual-fund physician and other investors with holdings in taxable accounts need to prepare for a tax hit on distributed gains — even if they reinvest the distributions. They can offset some or all of the gains (and taxes) if they’ve sold positions at a loss.

CITE: https://www.r2library.com/Resource/Title/082610254

Physicians and people who own mutual funds in tax-sheltered accounts such as 401(k)s or individual retirement accounts and are reinvesting the distributions, on the other hand, don’t have to worry. In those accounts, taxes only count when investors sell holdings in retirement, and those who have funds in qualified Roth IRAs won’t have to pay even then.

MORE: https://www.marketwatch.com/story/brace-yourself-for-an-extra-tax-hit-from-large-mutual-fund-payouts-11639175633?mod=home-page

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Comprehensive Financial Planning Strategies for Doctors and Advisors: Best Practices from Leading Consultants and Certified Medical Planners™

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Marriage Penalty Fading – Single Penalty Rising

A Curated Report

By Staff Reporters

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The marriage penalty has faded in recent years, particularly after the 2017 Republican tax cuts that targeted high incomes. But the singles penalty remains — the tax code is still written to benefit people in 1950s middle-class marriages who own their homes. That’s not great for the millions of households who are shouldering other cost burdens around single life.

CITE: https://www.r2library.com/Resource/Title/0826102549

Progressive tax codes are intended, at least theoretically, to ensure equitable distribution of the costs of maintaining civilization. They should (again, theoretically) be readjusted when a certain group begins to shoulder a disproportionate amount of that burden — like, for instance, single or divorced people. That’s not what’s happened, not for couples with two earners and not for the growing number of single or solo households. The reality of how people live and who works has changed. The policy has not kept pace.

The same principle holds true for Social Security, which was created first and foremost as a means of protecting the elderly from living out their final years in the literal poorhouse. The idea was simple: You and your employers pay in part of your salary now, and when you retire, you have enough to survive.

READ FULL REPORT HERE: https://www.vox.com/the-goods/22788620/single-living-alone-cost

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On Stock Market Volatility

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Putting it All into Perspective
By Sean G. Todd, Esq., M. Tax, CFP, CPA

The US stock market has taken investors on a bumpy ride in recent years. This volatility has tested investor discipline and prompted some doctors to question their commitment to equities. While no one knows the future, looking at the past may help you gain a better view of long-term market performance and put the recent market volatility in perspective.

Historical Performance

The historical distribution of US market returns since 1926 tells us that performance years are stacked in ascending order by return range. For example:

  • Market performance over the past two years has been extreme by historical standards. In 2008, US stocks experienced their second-worst calendar return in eighty-four years. Then, in 2009, stocks rebounded strongly to deliver a return in the top quartile of the historical distribution.
  • Over the long term, the market’s positive return years have outnumbered the negative return years. Since 1926, the market has experienced a positive return in almost three-quarters of the calendar years.
  • Not only are the positive years more numerous, there is a larger concentration of performance in the higher ranges of returns.
  • The sequence of calendar returns appears random, suggesting that accurately predicting future performance is a difficult task for any investor, physician or professional manager.

UPDATE: https://money.cnn.com/data/markets

Assessment

Over time, the market has rewarded investors who can bear the risk of stocks and stay committed through various periods of performance. And, professional counsel and advice goes a long way in helping you develop, implement and maintain your strategy.

Conclusion

The recent extreme market volatility has challenged many physician investors to rethink their investment strategy or to prompt them to initiate an investment strategy. And so, your thoughts and comments on this ME-P are appreciated. Feel free to review our top-left column, and top-right sidebar materials, links, URLs and related websites, too. Then, be sure to subscribe. It is fast, free and secure.

Conclusion

Your thoughts and comments on this ME-P are appreciated. Feel free to review our top-left column, and top-right sidebar materials, links, URLs and related websites, too. Then, subscribe to the ME-P. It is fast, free and secure.

Speaker: If you need a moderator or speaker for an upcoming event, Dr. David E. Marcinko; MBA – Publisher-in-Chief of the Medical Executive-Post – is available for seminar or speaking engagements. Contact: MarcinkoAdvisors@msn.com

OUR OTHER PRINT BOOKS AND RELATED INFORMATION SOURCES:

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RISK FACTORS COMMON TO PHYSICIANS

SOME COMMON RISK FACTORS FOR MEDICAL COLLEAGUES TO APPRECIATE

BY DR. DAVID E. MARCINKO MBA CMP®

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SPONSOR: http://www.CertifiedMedicalPlanner.org

AN INCOMPLETE LIST = T.N.T.C.

  • Do you and or any family members drive a vehicle?
  • Do you have employees?
  • Do you have a professional malpractice exposure?
  • Do you have legal responsibility to protect medical, EMRs or personal and patient financial data?
  • Are you married and do you have assets not protected by a prenuptial agreement?
  • Do you have a current tax obligation?
  • Do you own a business?
  • Are you a board member, officer, or director of a corporation, foundation, religious or educational organization?
  • Do you engage in activities like hunting, flying, boating, etc?
  • Do you have business or domestic partners whose actions create joint and several liabilities for you?
  • Do you have personal guarantees on real estate or for business loans; or family members?
  • Do you have tail liability for professional services performed in the past?
  • Have you made specific legal or financial representations that others have relied upon in a business context?
  • What kind and what dollar amount of insurance and legal planning have you implemented against these exposures?

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FOREWORD BY J. WESLEY BOYD MD PhD MA

[Professor of Psychiatry Harvard and Yale University]

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ASSESSMENT: Your thoughts and comments are appreciated.

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On the TAXATION of Capital Gains and Losses

UPDATE FOR PHYSICIANS AND ALL INVESTORS

By Dr. David E. Marcinko MBA CMP®

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SPONSOR: http://www.CertifiedMedicalPlanner.org

Almost everything you own and use for personal or investment purposes is a capital asset. Examples include a home, personal-use items like household furnishings, and stocks or bonds held as investments. When you sell a capital asset, the difference between the adjusted basis in the asset and the amount you realized from the sale is a capital gain or a capital loss.

CITE: https://www.r2library.com/Resource/Title/0826102549

Generally, an asset’s basis is its cost to the owner, but if you received the asset as a gift or inheritance, refer to Topic No. 703 for information about your basis.

For information on calculating adjusted basis, refer to Publication 551, Basis of Assets. You have a capital gain if you sell the asset for more than your adjusted basis. You have a capital loss if you sell the asset for less than your adjusted basis. Losses from the sale of personal-use property, such as your home or car, aren’t tax deductible.

IRS: https://www.irs.gov/taxtopics/tc409

MORE: https://medicalexecutivepost.com/2021/04/23/bidens-capital-gains-tax-proposal/

RELATED: https://medicalexecutivepost.com/2021/05/01/capital-gains-tax-non-sense/

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PODCAST: Healthcare Stocks, Investing & IPOs?

By Eric Bricker MD

Healthcare Stock and IPO Investing Can Be Confusing. The Story of Privia Health is a Good Case Study in Understanding the Underlying Economics in Healthcare Investing:

CITE: https://www.r2library.com/Resource/Title/0826102549

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Comprehensive Financial Planning Strategies for Doctors and Advisors: Best Practices from Leading Consultants and Certified Medical Planners™

ORDER: https://www.routledge.com/Comprehensive-Financial-Planning-Strategies-for-Doctors-and-Advisors-Best/Marcinko-Hetico/p/book/9781482240283

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What is GAAP?

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HOW IT WORKS

By Dr. David E. Marcinko MBA CMP®

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SPONSOR: http://www.CertifiedMedicalPlanner.org

Generally Accepted Accounting Principles

As a new physician investor, it’s important to know the distinctions between like measurements because the market allows firms to advertise their numbers in ways not otherwise regulated. Often companies will publicize their numbers using either GAAP or non-GAAP measures. GAAP, or generally accepted accounting principles, outlines rules and conventions for reporting financial information. It is a means to standardize financial statements and ensure consistency in reporting.

When a company publicizes its earnings and includes non-GAAP figures, it means it wants to provide investors with an arguably more accurate depiction of the company’s health (for instance, by removing one-time items to smooth out earnings). However, the further a company deviates from GAAP standards, the more room is allocated for some creative accounting and manipulation.

When looking at a company that is publishing non-GAAP numbers, new physician investors should be wary of these pro forma statements, because they may differ greatly from what GAAP deems acceptable.

CITE: https://www.r2library.com/Resource/Title/0826102549

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The Core GAAP Principles

GAAP is set forth in 10 primary principles, as follows:

  1. Principle of consistency: This principle ensures that consistent standards are followed in financial reporting from period to period.
  2. Principle of permanent methods: Closely related to the previous principle is that of consistent procedures and practices being applied in accounting and financial reporting to allow comparison.
  3. Principle of non-compensation: This principle states that all aspects of an organization’s performance, whether positive or negative, are to be reported. In other words, it should not compensate (offset) a debt with an asset.
  4. Principle of prudence: All reporting of financial data is to be factual, reasonable, and not speculative.
  5. Principle of regularity: This principle means that all accountants are to consistently abide by the GAAP.
  6. Principle of sincerity: Accountants should perform and report with basic honesty and accuracy.
  7. Principle of good faith: Similar to the previous principle, this principle asserts that anyone involved in financial reporting is expected to be acting honestly and in good faith.
  8. Principle of materiality: All financial reporting should clearly disclose the organization’s genuine financial position.
  9. Principle of continuity: This principle states that all asset valuations in financial reporting are based on the assumption that the business or other entity will continue to operate going forward.
  10. Principle of periodicity: This principle refers to entities abiding by commonly accepted financial reporting periods, such as quarterly or annually.

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Two Vital IRS Audit Flags for Physicians

For Doctors and all Investors

By Hayden Adams

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Red Flag #1: Under reporting income

Generally speaking, all income is taxable unless it’s specifically excluded, as is the case with certain gifts and inheritances. In most instances, the income you earn will be reported to both you and the government on an information return, such as a Form 1099 or W-2. If the income you report doesn’t match the IRS’s records, you could face problems down the road—so be sure you include the income from all of the following forms that are applicable to your situation:

  • 1099-B: The form on which financial institutions report capital gains.
  • 1099-DIV: The form on which financial institutions report dividends.
  • 1099-MISC: The form used to report various types of income, such as royalties, rents, payments to independent contractors, and numerous other types of income.
  • 1099-R:The form on which financial institutions report withdrawals from tax-advantaged retirement accounts.
  • Form 1099-INT: The form on which financial institutions report interest income.
  • Form SSA-1099:The form on which the Social Security Administration reports Social Security benefits (a portion of which may be taxable, depending on your level of income).
  • Form W-2:The form on which employers report total annual compensation, payroll taxes, contributions to retirement accounts, and other information.

If you receive an inaccurate statement of income, immediately contact the responsible party to request a corrected form and have them resend the documents to both you and the IRS as soon as possible to avoid delaying your tax return. Also, be aware that you must report income for which there is no form, such as renting out your vacation home.

CITE: https://www.r2library.com/Resource/Title/0826102549

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Red Flag #2: Misreporting investment gains

When you sell an investment, you’ll need to know both the cost basis (what you paid for the investment) and the sale price to determine your net gain or loss. The cost basis of your investment may need to be adjusted to account for commissions, fees, stock splits, or other events, which could help reduce your taxable gain or increase your net loss.

Financial institutions are required to adjust your investments’ cost basis and provide that information on a Form 1099. However, brokerages aren’t required to report the cost basis for investments purchased prior to a certain date, which means you’ll be responsible for supplying that information (see the table below). Be sure to keep records of all investment purchases and sales—even those for which your brokerage is responsible.

Your reporting responsibility

Depending on security type and date of purchase, you—rather than your brokerage—could be responsible for reporting the cost basis of your investment to the IRS.

CITE: https://www.r2library.com/Resource/Title/0826102549

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Security typeInvestor’s responsibility if
Stocks (including real estate investment trusts)Acquired before 01/01/2011
Mutual funds, exchange-traded funds, and dividend reinvestment plansAcquired before 01/01/2012
Other specified securities, including most bonds, derivatives, and options

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PODCAST: Medicare Financial Matters

WHAT COUNTS AS INCOME SOURCES?

BY CMS

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CITE: https://www.r2library.com/Resource/Title/0826102549

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Risk Management, Liability Insurance, and Asset Protection Strategies for Doctors and Advisors : Best Practices from Leading Consultants and Certified Medical Planners™ book cover

RISK MANAGEMENT: https://www.routledge.com/Risk-Management-Liability-Insurance-and-Asset-Protection-Strategies-for/Marcinko-Hetico/p/book/9781498725989

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Comprehensive Financial Planning Strategies for Doctors and Advisors: Best Practices from Leading Consultants and Certified Medical Planners™

FINANCIAL PLANNING: https://www.routledge.com/Comprehensive-Financial-Planning-Strategies-for-Doctors-and-Advisors-Best/Marcinko-Hetico/p/book/9781482240283

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What is Medical Practice FINANCIAL RATIO ANALYSIS?

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See the source image

BY DR. DAVID E. MARCINKO MBA CMP®

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SPONSOR: http://www.CertifiedMedicalPlanner.org

Financial ratio analysis typically involves the calculation of ratios that are financial and operational measures representative of the financial status of a clinic or medical practice enterprise.  These ratios are evaluated in terms of their relative comparison to generally established industry norms, which may be expressed as positive or negative trends for that industry sector. The ratios selected may function as several different measures of operating performance or financial condition of the subject entity.

CITE: https://www.r2library.com/Resource/Title/0826102549

Common types of financial indicators that are measured by ratio analysis include:

  • Liquidity. Liquidity ratios measure the ability of an organization to meet cash obligations as they become due, i.e., to support operational goals. Ratios above the industry mean generally indicate that the organization is in an advantageous position to better support immediate goals.  The current ratio, which quantifies the relationship between assets and liabilities, is an indicator of an organization’s ability to meet short-term obligations.  Managers use this measure to determine how quickly assets are converted into cash.
  • Activity. Activity ratios, also called efficiency ratios, indicate how efficiently the organization utilizes its resources or assets, including cash, accounts receivable, salaries, inventory, property, plant, and equipment.  Lower ratios may indicate an inefficient use of those assets.
  • Leverage. Leverage ratios, measured as the ratio of long-term debt to net fixed assets, are used to illustrate the proportion of funds, or capital, provided by shareholders (owners) and creditors to aid analysts in assessing the appropriateness of an organization’s current level of debt.  When this ratio falls equal to or below the industry norm, the organization is typically not considered to be at significant risk.
  • Profitability. Indicates the overall net effect of managerial efficiency of the enterprise. To determine the profitability of the enterprise for benchmarking purposes, the analyst should first review and make adjustments to the owner(s) compensation, if appropriate.  Adjustments for the market value of the “replacement cost” of the professional services provided by the owner are particularly important in the valuation of professional medical practices for the purpose of arriving at an ”economic level” of profit.

The selection of financial ratios for analysis and comparison to the organization’s performance requires careful attention to the homogeneity of data. Benchmarking of intra-organizational data (i.e., internal benchmarking) typically proves to be less variable across several different measurement periods.

However, the use of data from external facilities for comparison may introduce variation in measurement methodology and procedure. In the latter case, use of a standard chart of accounts for the organization or recasting the organization’s data to a standard format can effectively facilitate an appropriate comparison of the organization’s operating performance and financial status data to survey results.

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Comprehensive Financial Planning Strategies for Doctors and Advisors: Best Practices from Leading Consultants and Certified Medical Planners™

MORE: https://www.routledge.com/Comprehensive-Financial-Planning-Strategies-for-Doctors-and-Advisors-Best/Marcinko-Hetico/p/book/9781482240283

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PODCAST: “The Hospital” Book Review

By Brian Alexander

If You Like Michael Lewis Books, You’ll Love This

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US DEBT BUSTERS: The 1 TRILLION DOLLAR Coin

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BY MORNING BREW

The Legend of the $1 Trillion Platinum Coin

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You may have heard that a deadline to suspend the debt ceiling is rapidly approaching, and if lawmakers don’t do anything it could lead to “economic catastrophe,” in the words of Treasury Secretary Janet Yellen.

But what if we told you there was a solution to the debt ceiling fiasco so crazy…it just might work?

The solution: Yellen could have the Treasury mint a $1 trillion platinum coin, deposit it at the Fed to “retire” loads of US federal debt, and then enable the government to carry on with business as usual without having to worry about defaulting on its existing debt.

But can the Treasury really do that? Yes. According to Section 31 US Code § 5112

  • “The Secretary may mint and issue platinum bullion coins and proof platinum coins in accordance with such specifications, designs, varieties, quantities, denominations, and inscriptions as the Secretary, in the Secretary’s discretion, may prescribe from time to time.”

The law is crystal clear, and has been deemed kosher by numerous academics. “The statute clearly does authorize the issuance of trillion-dollar coins,” Laurence Tribe, a Harvard Law professor, told Washington Monthly back in 2013.

In fact, nothing says we have to stop at $1 trillion. Yellen could go big with a $10 trillion coin, hypothetically. As Bloomberg’s Joe Weisenthal explains, none of this would lead to inflation because it’s merely an “accounting trick”—not an influx of money into the economy.

Have we tried this before? The $1 trillion platinum coin idea seems to pop up every time the US faces a debt ceiling crunch. It was first introduced by a Georgia lawyer in 2010 and gained traction during the debt-ceiling crisis of 2011.

Things really turned up in 2013, when the government was…you guessed it, facing another debt ceiling deadline. The hashtag #MintTheCoin became popular on Twitter, and economists like Paul Krugman advocated for unleashing the coin. “If we have a crisis over the debt ceiling, it will be only because the Treasury Department would rather see economic devastation than look silly for a couple of minutes,” he wrote.

But each time the $1 trillion coin is mentioned as a way of resolving debt ceiling problems, the people in charge dismiss it as a distraction from Congress doing its job. “Neither the Treasury nor the Federal Reserve believes that the law can or should be used to produce platinum coins for the purpose of avoiding an increase in the debt limit,” The Treasury wrote during…well, yes, another debt ceiling emergency in 2015.

As for our current predicament, the Biden administration rejected the minting of the $1 trillion coin yet again last week.

CITE: https://www.r2library.com/Resource/Title/0826102549

Bottom line: Perhaps some enterprising future Treasury Secretary will manifest the platinum coin into existence, but for now it remains as mythical as Camelot.

MORE: https://medicalexecutivepost.com/2021/09/21/what-is-the-us-debt-ceiling/

COINS: https://www.msn.com/en-us/news/politics/2-democrats-say-they-want-to-mint-a-coin-to-solve-the-debt-ceiling-showdown-and-save-the-us-from-catastrophic-default/ar-AAOXLcU?li=BBnb7Kz

GOVERNMENT Rxn: https://www.msn.com/en-us/news/politics/heres-what-would-happen-if-washington-doesnt-prevent-a-government-shutdown/ar-AAODYi5?li=BBnb7Kz

Your comments are appreciated.

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