DICTIONARY: Health Economics and Finance

10,000 TERMS, DEFINITIONS, ABBREVIATIONS AND RESOURCES

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PERSONAL COACHING: Dr. Marcinko at Your Service!

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Dr. David Edward Marcinko works with doctors, nurses, technicians and healthcare professionals who struggle with professional disillusionment, burnout, financial distress and an unbalanced life–all of which can happen at any stage of a medical career. Through our coaching sessions, medical and healthcare professionals can achieve a more meaningful, purposeful, and flourishing life.

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The BUSINESS of Medical Practice

“NO MARGIN – NO MISSION”

Within Reason

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BY DR. DAVID E. MARCINKO MBA CMP®

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HOSPITALS: Management, Operations and Strategies

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PODCASTS: The GREAT ECONOMIC MODERATION / RESIGNATION in Medicine?

A HISTORICAL REVIEW WITH UPDATE

Dr. David Edward Marcinko | The Leading Business Education Network for  Doctors, Financial Advisors and Health Industry Consultants

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What was the Great Economic Moderation?

The Great Moderation is the name given to the period of decreased macroeconomic volatility experienced in the United States starting in the 1980s.

CITE: https://www.r2library.com/Resource/Title/0826102549

During this period, the standard deviation of quarterly real gross domestic product (GDP) declined by half and the standard deviation of inflation declined by two-thirds, according to figures reported by former U.S. Federal Reserve Chair Ben Bernanke. The Great Moderation can be summed up as a multi-decade period of low inflation and positive economic growth.

But, what about health economics, writ large? And, the actual practice of medicine by physicians in the trenches. Consider this historical review.

GOLDEN AGE OF MEDICINE

The ‘golden age of medicine’ – the first half of the 20th century, reaching its zenith with Jonas Salk’s 1955 polio vaccine – was a time of profound advances in surgical techniques, immunization, drug discovery, and the control of infectious disease; however, when the burden of disease shifted to lifestyle-driven, chronic, non-communicable diseases, the golden era slipped away. Although modifiable lifestyle practices now account for some 80% of premature mortality, medicine remains loathe to embrace lifestyle interventions as medicine Here, we argue that a 21st century golden age of medicine can be realized; the path to this era requires a transformation of medical school recruitment and training in ways that prioritize a broad view of lifestyle medicine. Moving beyond the basic principles of modifiable lifestyle practices as therapeutic interventions, each person/community should be viewed as a biological manifestation of accumulated experiences (and choices) made within the dynamic social, political, economic and cultural ecosystems that comprise their total life history. This requires an understanding that powerful forces operate within these ecosystems; marketing and neoliberal forces push an exclusive ‘personal responsibility’ view of health – blaming the individual, and deflecting from the large-scale influences that maintain health inequalities and threaten planetary health. The latter term denotes the interconnections between the sustainable vitality of person and place at all scales. We emphasize that barriers to planetary health and the clinical application of lifestyle medicine – including authoritarianism and social dominance orientation – are maintaining an unhealthy status quo.

NOTE: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31828026/

GOLDEN AGE OF MEDICAL PRACTICE

To listen to all those desperate to reform health care, you get the impression that physicians are pretty horrible people. We are all sexist, greedy, money grubbing tyrants who will perform unnecessary tests and procedures just to make money. We don’t care about quality or cost. We are killing off 250,000 patients every year with our ignored “errors.”

We purposely keep our patients in pain, or we addict them to narcotics just to shut them up. We are constantly told by lawyers that lawsuits are necessary to protect patients from doctors. We provide unsafe drugs just because the drug reps give us free pens and coffee cups. The government must step in to clean up the mess.

PODCAST: https://www.kevinmd.com/blog/2017/08/9-reasons-golden-age-medicine-golden.html

GOLDEN AGE OF PATIENT TRUST

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Risk Management, Liability Insurance, and Asset Protection Strategies for Doctors and Advisors: Best Practices from Leading Consultants and Certified Medical Planners™

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PODCAST: Cash Flow, Revenue & Entrepreneurial Leadership in Healthcare Business

THE ENTREPRENEURIAL M.D.

In this episode we are joined by Dr. Brent Jackson, Chief Medical Officer for Mercy General in Sacramento, CA to discuss the physician life-cycle, burnout, and transitioning into leadership within healthcare.

Play EpisodeDownload (40.4 MB)

Summary: Dr Brent Jackson discusses the flow of revenue throughout the medical industry.

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The STEP-UP In Investment Value?

Understanding the TAX loophole of a ‘step up’ in BASIS value

By Dr. David E. Marcinko MBA CMP®

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The term “step-up” refers to the difference in value and tax liability that an asset has when it is acquired and when it is transferred to an inheritor.

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CITE: https://www.r2library.com/Resource/Title/0826102549

EXAMPLE #2: The proverbial millionaire Doctor Joe, for example, could buy a home for $350,000 and sell it for $1 million, after which he’d pay taxes on the $650,000 gain. But if Dr. Joe passes the home onto his daughter Ella, and she has it appraised at $1 million, its value has taken a “step up” in value to $1 million. If Ella sells the home for $1 million or less, she wouldn’t owe anything in taxes.

ASSESSMENT: For billionaires like Jeff Bezos, Bill Gates and Elon Musk who earn far more through their investments than their salaries, this loophole is a perfect way to shield their wealth. Intergenerational wealth has contributed to surging inequality in America, which grew wider during the pandemic. Since 2019, the wealth of the top 400 richest people in the US increased by $1.4 trillion, per research from Gabriel Zucman and Emmanuel Saez, a pair of left-leaning economists at the University of California, Berkeley.

“Often, for these people, wealth accumulates tax-free their entire lives,” Frank Clemente, executive director at the left-leaning advocacy group Americans for Tax Fairness, opined. President Joe Biden proposed ending this loophole and making billionaires “pay their fair share,” so why does it look like his party won’t touch it?

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3 FINANCIAL SLANG “T” Terms

DEFINITIONS Physician-Investors Need to Know

By. Dr. David E. Marcinko MBA CMP®

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Trading AheadUnethical and illegal trading by specialists or market makers.
A specialist may buy a stock for themselves from Dr. John Q. Public even though a better price is available from another seller. The specialist can view bid and ask prices and then manually mis-match them, or see ahead to a less favorable price. It happens in this editor’s experience, by observing how long it takes for a stop order to execute after the stop price was reached.
This practice is a form of shimming.
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Trading ImbalanceA situation where a large block of stock is put up for sale, but not enough buyers are available for purchase, and a market maker is unable to buy the imbalance. Lightly traded and tightly held stocks are considered temporarily illiquid during such imbalances.
On occasion, a trading halt is put into place until enough buyers are available to purchase the deficit. On rare occasion, a handful of buyers can buy the stock at a huge discount if the stock was not halted during the imbalance.
On the New York Stock Exchange, large stocks usually have a “delayed open” for such imbalances, as a trading specialist will fill the order by lining up buyers for the block, and then open trading for the stock for the day.
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Triple Witching HourThe final hour of trading on a Friday when stock index futures, stock index options, and stock options all expire. This happens on the third Friday in March, June, September, and December. See Quadruple Witching Hour.
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Form ADV Part II [The Essential Document]

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Lifting the “Veil of Secrecy” on Selecting Financial Advisors

[By Dr. David Edward Marcinko MBA CMP™]

DEM white  shirtBy law, financial advisors must provide you with a form ADV Part II or a brochure that covers the same information. Even if a brochure is provided, ask for the ADV. Today, it may even be online.

While it is acceptable, even desirable, for the brochure to be easier to read than the ADV, the ADV is what is filed with the appropriate state or SEC. If the brochure reads more like a slick sales brochure or the information in the brochure glosses over the items on the ADV to a high degree, one should consider eliminating the advisor from consideration.

Types of Advisors

Registering with a state or SEC gives an advisor a fiduciary duty to the client. This is a high standard under the law. There are several types of advisors who are exempt from registering and filing an ADV.

First, there are registered representatives (brokers).  Brokers have a fiduciary responsibility to their firms regardless of whether they are statutory employees or independent contractors.

Second are attorneys and accountants whose advice is “incidental” to their legal or accounting practices. But, why would one hire someone whose advice is “incidental” to his primary profession?

A top-notch advisor is a full-time professional and should be registered.  One should insist that their advisor be registered.

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Lifting veil of secrecy

[The Author in Chicago Seeking Fiduciary Transparency]

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The ADV will describe the advisor’s background and employment history, including any prior disciplinary issues. It will describe the ownership of the firm and outline how the firm and advisor are compensated. Any referral arrangements will be described. If an advisor has an interest in any of the investments to be recommended, it must be listed as well as the fee schedule. There is also a description of the types of investments recommended and the types of research information that is used.

Assessment

A review of the ADV should result in an alignment of what the advisor said during the interview and what is filed with the regulators. If there is a clear discrepancy, choose another advisor. If it is unclear, discuss the issue with the advisor.

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Conclusion

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Understanding the Scientific Publication “H” Index, and others

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How to evaluate the academic performance of individual scientists

[By Dr. David Edward Marcinko MBA]

Dr. MarcinkoThe “h-index” was introduced in 2005 as a metric for estimating “the importance, significance and broad impact of a scientist’s cumulative contributions.” It takes into account both the number of an individual’s publications and their impact on peers, as indicated by citation counts.

Origination

Its creator, Jorge Hirsch (UC-San Diego) asserts that a “successful scientist” will have an h-index of 20 after 20 years; an “outstanding scientist” will have an index of 40 after 20 years; and a “truly unique individual” will have an index of 60 after 20 years or 90 after 30 years. You can read more about it in Nature and PhysicsWeb.

Web of Science

Curious to know your own h-index? You can easily determine it using Web of Science. Select “Science Citation Index Expanded.” Click “General Search” category and search for your name as author (e.g., SMITH J*). Use “Refine Your Results” by Institution to differentiate yourself from other scientists with the same initial(s). (This is an important step, otherwise your publications will be intermingled with unrelated papers and your h-index will be inaccurate.) Click on “Citation Report” in the box on the right side. Your h-index will be calculated automatically.

An alternative method is to sort your citations by “Times Cited”, using sort box on the right side. Scan down the list until the number of the paper exceeds the number of citations to that paper. For example, your h-index is 20 if your 21st paper has been cited 20 or fewer times, but your 20th paper has been cited 20 or more times.

Critique

Although effective and simple, the h-index suffers from some drawbacks that limit its use in accurately and fairly comparing the scientific output of different researchers. These drawbacks include information loss and low resolution: the former refers to the fact that in addition to h2 citations for papers in the h-core, excess citations are completely ignored, whereas the latter means that it is common for a group of researchers to have an identical h-index.

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Comprehensive Financial Planning Strategies for Doctors and Advisors: Best Practices from Leading Consultants

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Fixing the Bias

To solve these problems, Chun-Ting Zhang proposed the “e-index“, where e2 represents the ignored excess citations, in addition to the h2 citations for h-core papers. Citation information can be completely depicted by using the h-index together with the e-index, which are independent of each other. Some other h-type indices, such as a and R, are h-dependent, have information redundancy with h, and therefore, when used together with h, mask the real differences in excess citations of different researchers.

Link: http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0005429

Assessment

Google Scholar is another useful source of citation data.  A.-W. Harzing’s Publish or Perish software is a free application for Windows, Mac OS, and GNU/Linux that uses Google Scholar to compute citation counts, h-indexes, journal impact factors, and many other citation metrics.

Conclusion

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ENTREPRENEURSHIP Rising Again!

Try (or learn about) Entrepreneurship

BY DR. DAVID EDWARD MARCINKO MBA CMP®

One of the greatest things about the virtual economy is the expanded opportunity for people to branch out on their own and create something using their own expertise. Related to this is the growing societal desire to have more free time and a more balanced, efficient life overall. 

In fact, years ago when I was in business school, I learned that during a recession when jobs were sparse – folks would either go back to school to re-engineer and re-educate OR start their own business.

Today – If the pandemic taught us anything, it’s that we need to be able to pivot when circumstances call for it. In the years ahead, there will be a premium on flexibility, portability, and improvisation; knowing how to earn income outside the traditional employer-employee relationship will continue to be an especially valuable skill. 

entrepreneur

ASSESSMENT: So, if you are a physician, nurse, medical professional or financial advisor in the healthcare space, think about what you’re naturally good at (or at least interested in), and determine if there’s an opportunity to monetize it in some way on your own. Your career might thank you for it!

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Typical Topics 

  • Financial Planning
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What is the SELLING AWAY of Securities?

Information All Physician Investors Should Know

By Dr. David Edward Marcinko MBA CMP®

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According to Wikipedia, selling away in the U.S. securities brokerage industry is the inappropriate practice of an investment professional who sells, or solicits the sale of, securities not held or offered by the brokerage firm with which he is associated.

CITE: https://www.r2library.com/Resource/Title/0826102549

An example of the term expressed in a sentence is, “The broker was selling investments away from the firm.” Brokers marketing securities must have obtained the appropriate securities licenses for various types of investments. Brokers in the U.S. may be “associated” with one or more Brokerage firms and must obtain licenses by passing standardized Financial Industry Regulatory Authority exams such as the Series 6 or Series 7 exam.

***

In the past I’ve held these as well as a Series 63 and 65 license [SEC].

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What is the VIP [Patient] Syndrome

VERY IMPORTANT PERSONS

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VERY IMPORTANT PATIENTS

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DEFINITION: “VIP syndrome” is a term coined in 1964 by the psychiatrist Walter Weintraub to describe an intriguing paradox: Throughout history, the rich and famous, with all their resources and fancy doctors, have often received worse medical treatment, and suffered from worse health outcomes, than the average person. When physicians afford “special privileges” to their powerful patients, from “Mad King” George III to Michael Jackson, they seem to get sicker and even die. While Weintraub, a psychoanalyst, attributed the problem in part to doctors unconsciously resenting their influential patients, it seems doctors simply get starstruck around famous people and high-ranking figures. Despite their medical expertise, these physicians find themselves opting out of basic tests for “privacy” or prescribing dangerous medications for “comfort.”

CITE: https://www.r2library.com/Resource/Title/0826102549

RELATED: https://journal.chestnet.org/article/S0012-3692(16)37268-3/fulltext

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MEDICAL ETHICS: Managing Risk is a Component of Real Health Caring

Demanding High Moral Standards of Self … and Economic HEALTHCARE Organizations

Dr. David Edward Marcinko MBA CMP®

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It has been argued that physicians have abdicated the “moral high ground” in health care by their interest in seeking protection for their high incomes, their highly publicized self-referral arrangements, and their historical opposition toward reform efforts that jeopardized their clinical autonomy. 

Experts Speak

In his book Medicine at the Crossroads, colleague and Emory University professor Melvin Konnor, MD noted that “throughout its history, organized medicine has represented, first and foremost, the pecuniary interests of doctors.” He lays significant blame for the present problems in health care at the doorstep of both insurers and doctors, stating that “the system’s ills are pervasive and all its participants are responsible.” 

In order to reclaim their once esteemed moral position, physicians must actively reaffirm their commitment to the highest standards of the medical profession and call on other participants in the health care delivery system also to elevate their values and standards to the highest level.

Evolution

In the evolutionary shifts in models for care, physicians have been asked to embrace business values of efficiency and cost effectiveness, sometimes at the expense of their professional judgment and personal values.  While some of these changes have been inevitable as our society sought to rein in out-of-control costs, it is not unreasonable for physicians to call on payers, regulators and other parties to the health care delivery system to raise their ethical bar. 

Harvard University physician-ethicist Linda Emmanuel noted that “health professionals are now accountable to business values (such as efficiency and cost effectiveness), so business persons should be accountable to professional values including kindness and compassion.” 

Within the framework of ethical principles, John La Puma, M.D., wrote in Managed Care Ethics, that “business’s ethical obligations are integrity and honesty.  Medicine’s are those plus altruism, beneficence, non-maleficence, respect, and fairness.”

Incumbent in these activities is the expectation that the forces that control our health care delivery system, the payers, the regulators, and the providers will reach out to the larger community, working to eliminate the inequities that have left so many Americans with limited access to even basic health care. 

Charles Dougherty clarified this obligation in Back to Reform, when he noted that “behind the daunting social reality stands a simple moral value that motivates the entire enterprise”. 

ASSESSMENT

Health care is indeed grounded in caring. And, managing risk is a component of caring. It arises from a sympathetic response to the suffering of others.

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What is Risk Adjusted Stock Market Performance?

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By Timothy J. McIntosh MBA CFP® MPH

By Dr. David Edward Marcinko MBA CMP™

By Jeffery S. Coons PhD CFA

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-INTRODUCTION-

Performance measurement, like an annual physical, is an important feedback loop to monitor progress towards the goals of the medical professional’s investment program.  Performance comparisons to market indices and/or peer groups are a useful part of this feedback loop, as long as they are considered in the context of the market environment and with the limitations of market index and manager database construction.

Inherent to performance comparisons is the reality that portfolios taking greater risk will tend to out-perform less risky investments during bullish phases of a market cycle, but are also more likely to under-perform during the bearish phase.  The reason for focusing on performance comparisons over a full market cycle is that the phases biasing results in favor of higher risk approaches can be balanced with less favorable environments for aggressive approaches to lessen/eliminate those biases.

So, as physicians and other investors, can we eliminate the biases of the market environment by adjusting performance for the risk assumed by the portfolio?  While several interesting calculations have been developed to measure risk-adjusted performance, the unfortunate answer is that the biases of the market environment still tend to have an impact even after adjusting returns for various measures of risk.

However, medical professionals and their advisors will have many different risk-adjusted return statistics presented to them, so understanding the Sharpe ratio, Treynor ratio, Jensen’s measure or alpha, Morningstar star ratings, etc. and their limitations should help to improve the decisions made from the performance measurement feedback loop.

[a] The Treynor Ratio

The Treynor ratio measures the excess return achieved over the risk free return per unit of systematic risk as identified by beta to the market portfolio.  In practice, the Treynor ratio is often calculated using the T-Bill return for the risk-free return and the S&P 500 for the market portfolio.

[b] The Sharpe Ratio

The Sharpe ratio, named after CAPM pioneer William F. Sharpe, was originally formulated by substituting the standard deviation of portfolio returns (i.e., systematic plus unsystematic risk) in the place of beta of the Treynor ratio.  Thus, a fully diversified portfolio with no unsystematic risk will have a Sharpe ratio equal to its Treynor ratio, while a less diversified portfolio may have significantly different Sharpe and Treynor ratios.

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8Comprehensive Financial Planning Strategies for Doctors and Advisors: Best Practices from Leading Consultants and Certified Medical Planners™

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[c] The Jensen Alpha Measure

The Jensen measure, named after CAPM research Michael C. Jensen, takes advantage of the CAPM equation discussed in the Portfolio Management section to identify a statistically significant excess return or alpha of a portfolio.  The essential idea is that to investigate the performance of an investment manager you must look not only at the overall return of a portfolio, but also at the risk of that portfolio.

For instance, if there are two mutual funds that both have a 12 percent return, a lucid investor will want the fund that is less risky. Jensen’s gauge is one of the ways to help decide if a portfolio is earning the appropriate return for its level of risk. If the value is positive, then the portfolio is earning excess returns. In other words, a positive value for Jensen’s alpha means a fund manager has “beat the market” with his or her stock picking skills compared with the risk the manager has taken.

[d] Database Ratings

The ratings given to mutual funds by databases, such as Morningstar, and various financial magazines are another attempt to develop risk-adjusted return measures.  These ratings are generally based on a ranking system for funds calculated from return and risk statistics.

A popular example is Morningstar’s star ratings, representing a weighting of three, five and ten year risk/return ratings.  This measure uses a return score from cumulative excess monthly fund returns above T-Bills and a risk score derived from the cumulative monthly return below T-Bills, both of which are normalized by the average for the fund’s asset class.  These scores are then subtracted from each other and funds in the asset class are ranked on the difference.  The top 10 percent receive five stars, the next 22.5 percent get four stars, the subsequent 35 percent receive three stars, the next 22.5 percent receive two stars, and the remaining 10 percent get one star.

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Risk Management, Liability Insurance, and Asset Protection Strategies for Doctors and Advisors: Best Practices from Leading Consultants and Certified Medical Planners™

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Assessment

Unfortunately, these ratings systems tend to have the same problems of consistency and environmental bias seen in both non-risk adjusted comparisons over 3 and 5 year time periods and the other risk-adjusted return measures discussed above.  The bottom line on performance measurement is that the medical professional should not take the easy way out and accept independent comparisons, no matter how sophisticated, at face value.  Returning to our original rules-of-thumb, understanding the limitations of performance statistics is the key to using those statistics to monitor progress towards one’s goals.

This requires an understanding of performance numbers and comparisons in the context of the market environment and the composition/construction of the indices and peer group universes used as benchmarks.

Another important rule-of-thumb is to avoid projecting forward historical average returns, especially when it comes to strong performance in a bull market environment.  Much of an investment or manager’s performance may be environment-driven, and environments can change dramatically.

Channel Surfing

Have you visited our other topic channels? Established to facilitate idea exchange and link our community together, the value of these topics is dependent upon your input. Please take a minute to visit. And, to prevent that annoying spam, we ask that you register.

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ABOUT

Timothy J. McIntosh is Chief Investment Officer and founder of SIPCO.  As chairman of the firm’s investment committee, he oversees all aspects of major client accounts and serves as lead portfolio manager for the firm’s equity and bond portfolios. Mr. McIntosh was a Professor of Finance at Eckerd College from 1998 to 2008. He is the author of The Bear Market Survival Guide and the The Sector Strategist.  He is featured in publications like the Wall Street Journal, New York Times, USA Today, Investment Advisor, Fortune, MD News, Tampa Doctor’s Life, and The St. Petersburg Times.  He has been recognized as a Five Star Wealth Manager in Texas Monthly magazine; and continuously named as Medical Economics’ “Best Financial Advisors for Physicians since 2004.  And, he is a contributor to SeekingAlpha.com., a premier website of investment opinion. Mr. McIntosh earned a Bachelor of Science Degree in Economics from Florida State University; Master of Business Administration (M.B.A) degree from the University of Sarasota; Master of Public Health Degree (M.P.H) from the University of South Florida and is a CERTIFIED FINANCIAL PLANNER® practitioner. His previous experience includes employment with Blue Cross/Blue Shield of Florida, Enterprise Leasing Company, and the United States Army Military Intelligence.

Dr. Jeffrey S. Coons is the Co-Director of Research at Manning & Napier Advisors, Inc. with primary responsibilities focusing on the measurement and management of portfolio risk and return relative to client objectives.  This includes providing analysis across every aspect of the investment process, from objectives setting and asset allocation to on-going monitoring of portfolio risk and return.  Dr. Coons is also member of the Investment Policy Group, which establishes and monitors secular investment trends, macroeconomic overviews, and the investment disciplines of the firm. Dr. Coons holds a doctoral degree in economics from Temple University, graduated with distinction from the University of Rochester with a B.A. in Economics, holds the designation of Chartered Financial Analyst, and is one of the employee-owners of Manning and Napier.

Conclusion

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CORRELATION in Modern Portfolio Theory Investing

“Correlation” has been used over the past twenty years by institutions, [physician] investors and financial advisors to assemble portfolios of moderate INVESTMENT risk

By Dr. David Edward Marcinko MBA CMP®

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SPONSOR: http://www.CertifiedMedicalPlanner.org

Modern Portfolio Theory approaches investing by examining the complete market and the full economy. MPT places a great emphasis on the correlation between investments. 

DEFINITION: Correlation is a measure of how frequently one event tends to happen when another event happens. High positive correlation means two events usually happen together – high SAT scores and getting through college for instance. High negative correlation means two events tend not to happen together – high SATs and a poor grade record. No correlation means the two events are independent of one another.

CITATION: https://www.r2library.com/Resource/Title/0826102549

CORRELATION: https://medicalexecutivepost.com/2021/02/05/correlation-is-not-causation/

In statistical terms two events that are perfectly correlated have a “correlation coefficient” of 1; two events that are perfectly negatively correlated have a correlation coefficient of -1; and two events that have zero correlation have a coefficient of 0.

In calculating correlation, a statistician would examine the possibility of two events happening together, namely:

  • If the probability of A happening is 1/X;
  • And the probability of B happening is 1/Y; then
  • The probability of A and B happening together is (1/X) times (1/Y), or 1/(X times Y).

There are several laws of correlation including;

  1. Combining assets with a perfect positive correlation offers no reduction in portfolio risk.  These two assets will simply move in tandem with each other.
  2. Combining assets with zero correlation (statistically independent) reduces the risk of the portfolio.  If more assets with uncorrelated returns are added to the portfolio, significant risk reduction can be achieved.
  3. Combing assets with a perfect negative correlation could eliminate risk entirely.   This is the principle with “hedging strategies”.  These strategies are discussed later in the book.

In the real world, negative correlations are very rare.  Most assets maintain a positive correlation with each other.  The goal of a prudent investor is to assemble a portfolio that contains uncorrelated assets.  When a portfolio contains assets that possess low correlations, the upward movement of one asset class will help offset the downward movement of another.  This is especially important when economic and market conditions change.

As a result, including assets in your portfolio that are not highly correlated will reduce the overall volatility (as measured by standard deviation) and may also increase long-term investment returns. This is the primary argument for including dissimilar asset classes in your portfolio. Keep in mind that this type of diversification does not guarantee you will avoid a loss.  It simply minimizes the chance of loss. 

In this table provided by Ibbotson, the average correlation between the five major asset classes is displayed. The lowest correlation is between the U.S. Treasury Bonds and the EAFE (international stocks).  The highest correlation is between the S&P 500 and the EAFE; 0.77 or 77 percent. This signifies a prominent level of correlation that has grown even larger during this decade.   Low correlations within the table appear most with U.S. Treasury Bills.

Historical Correlation of Asset Classes

Benchmark                             1          2          3         4         5         6            

1 U.S. Treasury Bill                  1.00    

2 U.S. Bonds                          0.73     1.00    

3 S&P 500                               0.03     0.34     1.00    

4 Commodities                         0.15     0.04     0.08      1.00      

5 International Stocks              -0.13    -0.31    0.77      0.14    1.00       

6 Real Estate                           0.11      0.43    0.81     -0.02    0.66     1.00

Table Source: Ibbotson 1980-2012

ASSESSMENT: Your thoughts are appreciated.

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PSYCHOLOGICAL “TRAPS” of Investing

MIND TRAPS PHYSICIAN INVESTORS MUST REDUCE AND AVOID AT ALL COSTS

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By Dr. David E. Marcinko MBA CMP®

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SPONSOR: http://www.CertifiedMedicalPlanner.org

As human beings, our brains are booby-trapped with psychological barriers that stand between making smart financial decisions and making dumb ones. The good news is that once you realize your own mental weaknesses, it’s not impossible to overcome them.

CITE: https://www.r2library.com/Resource/Title/0826102549

In fact, Mandi Woodruff, a financial reporter whose work has appeared in Yahoo! Finance, Daily Finance, The Wall Street Journal, The Fiscal Times and the Financial Times among others; related the following mind-traps in a September 2013 essay for the finance vertical Business Insider; as these impediments are now entering the lay-public zeitgeist.

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8 Psychological Traps All Stock Investors Should Avoid - YouTube

 Anchoring happens when we place too much emphasis on the first piece of information we receive regarding a given subject. For instance, when shopping for a wedding ring a salesman might tell us to spend three months’ salary. After hearing this, we may feel like we are doing something wrong if we stray from this advice, even though the guideline provided may cause us to spend more than we can afford.

 Myopia makes it hard for us to imagine what our lives might be like in the future. For example, because we are young, healthy, and in our prime earning years now, it may be hard for us to picture what life will be like when our health depletes and we know longer have the earnings necessary to support our standard of living. This short-sightedness makes it hard to save adequately when we are young, when saving does the most good.

 Gambler’s fallacy occurs when we subconsciously believe we can use past events to predict the future. It is common for the hottest sector during one calendar year to attract the most investors the following year. Of course, just because an investment did well last year doesn’t mean it will continue to do well this year. In fact, it is more likely to lag the market.

 Avoidance is simply procrastination. Even though you may only have the opportunity to adjust your health care plan through your employer once per year, researching alternative health plans is too much work and too boring for us to get around to it. Consequently, we stick with a plan that may not be best for us.

 Loss aversion affected many investors during the stock market crash of 2008. During the crash, many people decided they couldn’t afford to lose more and sold their investments. Of course, this caused the investors to sell at market troughs and miss the quick, dramatic recovery.

 Overconfident investing happens when we believe we can out-smart other investors via market timing or through quick, frequent trading. Data convincingly shows that people who trade most often underperform the market by a significant margin over time.

 Mental accounting takes place when we assign different values to money depending on where we get it from. For instance, even though we may have an aggressive saving goal for the year, it is likely easier for us to save money that we worked for than money that was given to us as a gift.

MORE: https://medicalexecutivepost.com/2021/09/04/more-on-money-psychology/

RELATED: https://medicalexecutivepost.com/2014/12/15/on-internet-investing-psychology/

 Herd mentality makes it very hard for humans to not take action when everyone around us does. For example, we may hear stories of people making significant profits buying, fixing up, and flipping homes and have the desire to get in on the action, even though we have no experience in real estate.

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RISK MANAGEMENT: https://www.routledge.com/Risk-Management-Liability-Insurance-and-Asset-Protection-Strategies-for/Marcinko-Hetico/p/book/9781498725989

Risk Management, Liability Insurance, and Asset Protection Strategies for Doctors and Advisors : Best Practices from Leading Consultants and Certified Medical Planners™ book cover

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INVESTING: “Direct Indexing” Definition

WHAT IT IS – HOW IT WORKS?

Citation: https://www.r2library.com/Resource/Title/0826102549

Direct Indexing at Vanguard - FiPhysician

READ: https://smartasset.com/investing/direct-indexing#:~:text=Advantages%20of%20Direct%20Indexing%201%20Tax%20Efficiency.%20Direct,Social%20Criteria%20Customization.%20…%204%20Lower%20Costs.%20

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“Dictionary of Health Economics and Finance”

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Product Details

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DONATE: Your Body to Science?

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Advancing the Science of Medicine with a Priceless, No Cost Option

Everything we know about the human body comes from studying whole body donors. At MedCure, they connect you or your loved ones to the physicians, surgeons, and researchers who are continuing this vital work. Their discoveries and innovations help people live longer, make treatments less invasive, and create new ways to prevent illness or disease.

They are constantly overwhelmed by the incredible generosity and selflessness of donors.  MedCure honors their gifts by covering, upon acceptance, all expenses related to the donation process. These costs include transportation from the place of passing, cremation, and a certified copy of the death certificate, as well as the return of cremated remains to the family or a scattering of the ashes at sea. By request, they can provide a family letter that shares more detailed information on how you or your loved one contributed to medical science.

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How to Donate Your Body to Science | Discover Magazine

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READ: https://www.msn.com/en-us/health/wellness/what-exactly-happens-when-you-donate-your-body-to-science/ar-AAPaNJm?li=BBnb7Kz

CRYONICS: https://www.cryonics.org/

LONGEVITY: https://medicalexecutivepost.com/2021/09/26/podcasts-jeff-bezos-and-altos-longevity-labs/

RELATED: https://www.msn.com/en-us/news/crime/crematorium-owner-faces-10-years-for-improper-body-storage-charges-license-revoked/ar-AAPaCLV?li=BBnb7Kz

Body Facts: https://lifehacker.com/14-weird-facts-about-the-human-body-you-probably-never-1847829288/slides/2

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BALANCE BILLING: The Emerging “No Surprise” Act

Balance Medical Billing

By Dr. David E. Marcinko MBA CMP®

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The No Surprises Act is looking to make the practice of out of network balance billing a thing of the past.

CITE: https://www.r2library.com/Resource/Title/0826102549

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No Surprises Act: New Law to Protect Against Surprise ...

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Beginning in 2022, there will be few situations in which a patient can receive a bill for out-of-network care they believed would be covered by their insurance company. This new rule should especially benefit patients in emergency situations who don’t have the time or luxury to dig up the details on every provider they encounter.

CONGRESS: https://www.congress.gov/bill/116th-congress/house-bill/3630/

The No Surprises Act also requires insurance companies to provide patients with at least 90 days of coverage if an in-network provider moves out of network. That way, patients aren’t forced to switch providers immediately if such a move happens while they’re in the middle of a treatment plan.

DOCTORS: https://www.elixirehr.com/what-the-no-surprises-act-means-for-healthcare-providers/

Now, the No Surprises Act does have its limitations. Patients can still get a bill for out-of-network care if they visit an urgent care clinic for non-emergency purposes. Also, if consumers are informed that the care they’re about to receive is out of network and they give written consent to move forward, then they may get billed for that care even once the new rule takes effect.

CMS: https://www.cms.gov/nosurprises

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MEDICAL RISK MANAGEMENT, Liability Insurance and Asset Protection Strategies

FOR PHYSICIANS AND THEIR FINANCIAL ADVISORS

SPONSOR: http://www.CertifiedMedicalPlanner.org

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REVIEWS:

“Physicians who don’t understand modern risk management, insurance, business, and asset protection principles are sitting ducks waiting to be taken advantage of by unscrupulous insurance agents and financial advisors; and even their own prospective employers or partners. This comprehensive volume from Dr. David Marcinko and his co-authors will go a long way toward educating physicians on these critical subjects that were never taught in medical school or residency training.”
Dr. James M. Dahle, MD, FACEP, Editor of The White Coat Investor, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA


“With time at a premium, and so much vital information packed into one well organized resource, this comprehensive textbook should be on the desk of everyone serving in the healthcare ecosystem. The time you spend reading this frank and compelling book will be richly rewarded.”
—Dr. J. Wesley Boyd, MD, PhD, MA, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA

ASSESSMENT: Your thoughts are appreciated.

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So – What is Financial BETA, Granularity?

MUCH MORE COMPLICATED THAN MOST [PHYSICIAN] INVESTORS THINK!

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By Dr. David Edward Marcinko MBA CMP®

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SPONSORED: http://www.CertifiedMedicalPlanner.org

May 11, 2021

Dow34,269.16-473.66-1.36%
S&P 5004,152.10-36.33-0.87%
Nasdaq13,389.43-12.43-0.09%
GlobalDow4,011.09-61.07-1.50%

Most all investors and physician executives are aware of the concept of financial beta.

BETA: A Systemic risk measurement benchmark correlating with a change in a specific index.

EXAMPLE: The measure of a stock’s volatility relative to the market, where a beta lower than 1 means the stock is less sensitive than the market as a whole; higher than 1 indicates the stock is more volatile than the market. The healthcare industry is considered to be increasingly volatile and hence possess a higher beta.

CITATION: https://www.r2library.com/Resource/Title/0826102549

See the source image

QUERY: But, what about more granular concepts like Levered Beta vs Un-levered Beta?

LINK: https://corporatefinanceinstitute.com/resources/knowledge/valuation/what-is-beta-guide/

ALPHA versus BETA Podcast: https://youtu.be/dP_23vKJ3HQ

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Activity Based Medical Cost Accounting and Management

NON-TRADITIONAL ACCOUNTING METHODS KNOWN IN THE BUSINESS COMMUNITY BUT NOT USED IN HOSPITALS OR HEALTH CARE ORGANIZATIONS

By Dr. David Edward Marcinko; MBA CMP® CPHQ

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SPONSOR: http://www.CertifiedMedicalPlanner.org

Sooner or later – as a practicing physician – you will want to ascertain and then demonstrate the cost effectiveness of your medical care. By using the process of Activity Based Cost (ABC) Management, you will be able to do so.  

ALAS: But, if you’re using a traditional accounting system – like most all hospitals today that use the fictional “average wholesale cost” method – you won’t know a thing about your medical practice or clinic activity costs. Hence, again like most all hospitals, fees become simply vacuous.

Managerial Accounting Assignment Help in Australia

Here’s how: https://medicalexecutivepost.com/2007/12/15/activity-based-cost-medical-management/

HOW TO READ A SCIENTIFIC PAPER: https://medicalexecutivepost.com/2021/04/09/how-to-read-and-understand-a-scientific-paper/

DETAILED WHITE PAPERIN-PROGRESS [thru editing but before peer-reviewed publication]: https://healthcarefinancials.files.wordpress.com/2007/12/abcm.pdf

ASSESSMENT: Your thoughts are appreciated.

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Some Retirement Statistics and Questions for Physicians

Transitioning to the End of Your Medical Career

 BY DR. DAVID EDWARD MARCINKO MBA CMP®

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SPONSOR: http://www.CertifiedMedicalPlanner.org

With the PP-ACA, increased compliance regulations and higher tax rates impending from the Biden administration – not to mention the corona pandemic, venture capital based healthcare corporations and telehealth – physicians are more concerned about their retirement and retirement planning than ever before; and with good reason. After payroll taxes, dividend taxes, limited itemized deductions, the new 3.8% surtax on net investment income and an extra 0.9% Medicare tax, for every dollar earned by a high earning physician, almost 50 cents can go to taxes!

Introduction

Retirement planning is not about cherry picking the best stocks, ETFs or mutual funds or how to beat the short term fluctuations in the market. It’s a disciplined long term strategy based on scientific evidence and a prudent process. You increase the probability of success by following this process and monitoring on a regular basis to make sure you are on track.

General Surveys

According to a survey from the Employee Benefit Research Institute [EBRI] and Greenwald & Associates; nearly half of workers without a retirement plan were not at all confident in their financial security, compared to 11 percent for those who participated in a plan, according to the 2014 Retirement Confidence Survey (RCS).

In addition, 35 percent of workers have not saved any money for retirement, while only 57 percent are actively saving for retirement. Thirty-six percent of workers said the total value of their savings and investments—not including the value of their home and defined benefit plan—was less than $1,000, up from 29 percent in the 2013 survey. But, when adjusted for those without a formal retirement plan, 73 percent have saved less than $1,000.

Debt is also a concern, with 20 percent of workers saying they have a major problem with debt. Thirty-eight percent indicate they have a minor problem with debt. And, only 44 percent of workers said they or their spouse have tried to calculate how much money they’ll need to save for retirement. But, those who have done the calculation tend to save more.

The biggest shift in the 24 years has been the number of workers who plan to work later in life. In 1991, 84 percent of workers indicated they plan to retire by age 65, versus only 9 percent who planned to work until at least age 70. In 2014, 50 percent plan on retiring by age 65; with 22 percent planning to work until they reach 70.

Physician Statistics

Now, compare and contrast the above to these statistics according to a 2018 survey of physicians on financial preparedness by American Medical Association [AMA] Insurance. The statistics are still alarming:

  • The top personal financial concern for all physicians is having enough money to retire.
  • Only 6% of physicians consider themselves ahead of schedule in retirement preparedness.
  • Nearly half feel they were behind
  • 41% of physicians average less than $500,000 in retirement savings.
  • Nearly 70% of physicians don’t have a long term care plan.
  • Only half of US physicians have a completed estate plan including an updated will and Medical directives.

Retired MD Doctor Retirement Gift Idea Retiring - Doctor ...

Thoughts to Ponder

And so, to help make your golden years comfortable and worry free, here are ten important retirement questions for all physicians to consider:

  1. How much money do you need to retire?
  2. What is your retirement cash flow?
  3. What is your retirement vision?
  4. How to stay on retirement track?
  5. How to maximize retirement plan contributions such as 401(k) or 403(b)?
  6. How to maximize retirement income from retirement plans?
  7. What are some other retirement plan savings options?
  8. What is your retirement plan and investing style?
  9. What is the role of social security in retirement planning?
  10. How to integrate retirement with estate planning?

The opinion of a competent Certified Medical Planner® can assist.

ASSESSMENT: Your thoughts, comments and input are appreciated.

Comprehensive Financial Planning Strategies for Doctors and Advisors: Best Practices from Leading Consultants and Certified Medical Planners™

ORDER Textbook: https://www.amazon.com/Comprehensive-Financial-Planning-Strategies-Advisors/dp/1482240289/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&qid=1418580820&sr=8-1&keywords=david+marcinko

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Informal Money SLANG TERMS to Avoid

NOT PROFESSIONAL BUSINESS SCHOOL LINGUISTICS – BUT FAR TOO OFTEN USED

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Invite Dr. Marcinko | The Leading Business Education Network for Doctors,  Financial Advisors and Health Industry Consultants

By Dr. David Edward Marcinko MBA CMP®

SPONSOR: http://www.CertifiedMedicalPlanner.org

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Another Word for “Money” | 100+ Different Forms of Money You Should Know •  7ESL

People really love money since it is needed to buy just about everything. In fact, we actually published a formal print dictionary on health economics and finance terms that is very popular with physician investors and medical colleagues; it is a favorite of economic students as well!

Product Details

CITE: https://www.r2library.com/Resource/Title/0826102549

And, money is by far one of those words that has more slang or terms for it than any others. This proves that cash or money, does not have be boring when speaking about it. Just keep in mind that these slang synonyms are in plural form. They are also words mostly used for US currency.

Perhaps the fact that money is so important may help to explain why there are so many different ways to say it. These 95 slang words for money and their meanings are really worth taking a look at. This list not only contains the countless ways to speak, write or say the word money, but also what are the meanings behind each phrase or term.

LINK: https://blog.online-spellcheck.com/english/95-slang-words-money-meanings/

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ASSESSMENT: Lastly, remember to never use any of these slang terms for money if you are doing formal writing or publishing; especially for me!

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FOR DOCTORS ONLY: Secure an Unbiased Second Advisory Fiduciary Opinion

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Dr. David Edward Marcinko MBA CMP®

Certified Medical Planner®

SPONSOR: http://www.CertifiedMedicalPlanner.org

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FINANCIAL PLANNING

CAREER DEVELOPMENT

MEDICAL PRACTICE BUY IN / OUT

INVESTMENT ANALYSIS

PORTFOLIO MANAGEMENT

MERGERS AND ACQUISITIONS

PRACTICE APPRAISALS AND VALUATIONS

RETIREMENT PLANNING

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CONTACT: Ann Miller RN MHA

EMAIL: MarcinkoAdvisors@msn.com

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The BUSINESS [Economic] CYCLE: What is it Really?

Of Bull and Bear Markets, too!

See the source image

By Dr. David Edward Marcinko MBA CMP®

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SPONSOR: http://www.CertifiedMedicalPlanner.org

The business cycle is also known as the economic cycle and reflects the expansion or contraction in economic activity. Understanding the business cycle and the indicators used to determine its phases may influence investment or economic business decisions and financial or medical planning expectations. Although often depicted as the regular rising and falling of an episodic curve, the business cycle is very irregular in terms of amplitude and duration.

Moreover, many elements move together during the cycle and individual elements seldom carry enough momentum to cause the cycle to move. However, elements may have a domino effect on one another, and this is ultimately drives the cycle.  We can also have a large positive cycle, coincident with a smaller but still negative cycle, as seen in the current healthcare climate of today.

CITE: https://www.r2library.com/Resource/Title/082610254

  1. First Phase: Trough to Recovery (production driven)

Scenario: A depressed GNP leads to declining industrial production and capacity utilization. Decreased workloads result in improved labor productivity and reduced labor (unit) costs until actual producer (wholesale) prices decline.

  1. Second Phase: Recovery to Expansion (consumer driven)

Scenario: CPI declines (due to reduced wholesale prices) and consumer real income rises, improving consumer sentiment and actual demand for consumer goods.

  1. Third Phase: Expansion to Peak (production driven)

Scenario: GNP rises leading to increased industrial production and capacity utilization. But, labor productivity declines and unit labor costs and producer (wholesale) prices rise.

  1. Fourth Phase: Peak to Contraction (consumer driven)

Scenario: CPI rises making consumer real income and sentiment erode until consumer demand, and ultimately purchases, shrink dramatically.  Recessions may occur and economists have an alphabet used to describe them.

For example, with a V, the drop and recovery is quick. For U, the economy moves up more sluggishly from the bottom. A W is what you would expect: repeated recoveries and declines. An L shaper recession describes a prolonged dry economic spell or even depression.


NOTE: Historically, contractions have had a shorter duration than expansions.

Bull and Bear Markets for Medical Professionals

A bull market is generally one of rising stock prices, while a bear market is the opposite. There are usually two bulls for every one bear market over the long term.

More specifically, a bear market is defined as a drop of twenty percent or more in a market index from its high, and can vary in duration and severity.  While a bull market has no such threshold requirement to exist, other than they exist between these two periods of sharp decline.

Whither the Bear?

As a doctor, your action plan in a bear market depends on many variables, with perhaps your age being the most important:

In your 30s:

  • Pay off debts, school or practice loans.
  • Invest in safe money market mutual funds, cash or CDs.
  • Start retirement plan or 401-K account.

In your 40s:

  • Increase your pension plan or 401-K contributions.
  • Stay weighted more toward equity investments.
  • Review your goals, risk tolerance and portfolio.

In your 50s:

  • Position assets for ready cash instruments.
  • Diversify into stock, bonds and cash.

Retirement:

  • Maintain 3 years of ready cash living expenses.
  • Reduce, but still maintain your exposure to equities.

ASSESSMENT: So, where are we right now in the economic business cycle? Your thoughts are appreciated.

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On Cultural Sensitivity in Education and Medicine

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A Modern Integral Component of Healthcare Training

[By Render S. Davis MHA CHE]

[By Dr. David Edward Marcinko MBA]

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While America has often been called a “nation of immigrants,” it has never been more true than today. Consequently, the challenge for physicians and other health care providers, in both large cities and small communities, is meeting the health care needs of increasingly diverse and multi-cultural populations who speak different languages and have social norms, traditions, and values that may substantially differ from their own. Problems arise when clinicians expect, even demand, that patients and their families discard their cultural foundations and adhere to the health care provider’s view of the care and decision-making process.

Instead, the health care team should be more aware of and sensitive to the values and beliefs of patients who come from other cultures; working within to assure that the patient’s individual rights are supported and wishes honored to the fullest extent possible.

In her award-winning book, The Spirit Catches You and You Fall Down, Ann Fadiman chronicled this tragic clash of two cultures in medical care for a child of the traditional Hmong people of Laos, transplanted to California after the Vietnam War.

In the book, Fadiman recounts a conversation with Professor Arthur Kleinman of Harvard University, a highly regarded expert in multicultural relations and conflict, who noted that “If you cannot see that your own culture has its own set of interests, emotions, and biases, how can you expect to deal successfully with someone else’s culture?”

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Former U.S. Surgeon General David Satcher, M.D., Ph.D., now Director of the Satcher Health Leadership Institute at Morehouse College of Medicine in Atlanta, Georgia, helped develop a special curriculum designed to foster greater cultural competence among physicians and health care providers.

Called the “CRASH Course,” the program emphasizes:

  1. Cultural Awareness. Acknowledging the diversity and legitimacy of the many cultures that make up the fabric of American Society;
  2. Respect. Valuing other cultural norms, even if they differ or conflict with your own;
  3. Assess and affirm. Understanding the points of both congruence and difference among cultural approaches to decision-making; learning how to achieve the best outcomes within the cultural framework of the patient and family unit;
  4. Sensitivity and self awareness. Being secure in your own values; while willing to be flexible in working through cultural differences with others;
  5. Humility. Recognizing that every culture has legitimacy and that no one is an expert in what is best for others; being willing to subordinate your values for those of another to achieve the goals of treatment.

There is little doubt that multi-cultural sensitivity will continue to grow as an increasingly integral component of medical education and risk management in health care practice.

Dr. Marcinko Teaching Philosophy

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About the Author

Render Davis was a Certified Healthcare Executive, now retired from Crawford Long Hospital at Emory University, in Atlanta, GA He served as Assistant Administrator for General Services, Policy Development, and Regulatory Affairs from 1977-95.  He is a founding board member of the Health Care Ethics Consortium of Georgia and served on the consortium’s Executive Committee, Advisory Board, Futility Task Force, Strategic Planning Committee, and chaired the Annual Conference Planning Committee, for many years.  

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What is a REIT, Really?

REITs – The Margarine of Real Estate Investing

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By Dr. Dennis Bethel MD

By Dr. David E. Marcinko MBA CMP®

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SPONSOR: http://www.CertifiedMedicalPlanner.org

Just like real estate, butter has been around for thousands of years.  Sometime in the 1800’s someone decided that there was a need for something that looked like butter, tasted similar to butter, but wasn’t butter.  Along came margarine.  Real estate investment trusts (REITs) are the margarine of the real estate investing world.

NAREIT, the National Association of Real Estate Investment Trusts, answers the question

What is a REIT?” in the following way:

“A REIT, or Real Estate Investment Trust, is a type of real estate company modeled after mutual funds.  REITs were created by Congress in 1960 to give all Americans – not just the affluent – the opportunity to invest in income producing real estate in a manner similar to how many Americans invest in stocks and bonds through mutual funds.  Income-producing real estate refers to land and the improvements on it – such as apartments, offices or hotels.  REITs may invest in the properties themselves, generating income through the collection of rent or they may invest in mortgages or mortgage securities tied to the properties, helping to finance the properties and generating interest income.”

While REITs typically own real estate, investors in REITs do not.  REITs are paper assets that represent interest in a company that owns and operates income producing properties.  In essence they are real estate flavored stock.  As such, REITs are generally highly correlated with the stock market.

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TERMINOLOGY

When discussing REITs, you encounter the following terminology – public, private, traded, and non-traded.  Public REITs can be designated as non-traded or traded depending on whether or not they are traded on a stock exchange.

Since traded REITs are traded on the stock exchange, they enjoy a high degree of liquidity just like any other stock.  Unfortunately, traded REITs tend to follow the economic cycles and can closely correlate with the stock market.  This can lead to a higher degree of volatility than what is usually seen with physical real estate.  Additionally, they do not afford the investor the tax-advantages that come with investments in physical real estate.

MORE: https://medicalexecutivepost.com/2017/11/15/on-non-traded-real-estate-investment-trusts-reits/

Private REITs and non-traded public REITs are not traded on an exchange.  These are usually offered to accredited investors through broker-dealer networks.  These REITs are illiquid and generally have high fees.  They have been plagued with transparency issues as well as conflicts of interest.  Valuation of this stock is difficult and can be misleading to the investor.  Due diligence is very important as the quality of non-traded REITs can vary widely.

MORE: https://medicalexecutivepost.com/2014/06/13/why-i-hate-non-publicly-traded-reits/

ASSESSMENT: Your thoughts and comments are appreciated.

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INVESTING RISKS DOCTORS SHOULD KNOW: Types & Definitions

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Financial Investing risk is any of various types of risk associated with financing, including financial transactions that include company loans in risk of default. Often it is understood to include only downside risk, meaning the potential for financial loss and uncertainty about its extent.

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See the source image

BY DR. DAVID E. MARCINKO MBA CMP®

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SPONSOR: http://www.CertifiedMedicalPlanner.org

Understanding Financial Risk

Although broad investing risks can be quickly summarized as “the failure to achieve spending and inflation-adjusted growth goals,” individual assets may face any number of other subsidiary risks:

  • Call risk – The risk, faced by a holder of a callable bond that a bond issuer will take advantage of the callable bond feature and redeem the issue prior to maturity. This means the bondholder will receive payment on the value of the bond and, in most cases, will be reinvesting in a less favorable environment (one with a lower interest rate)
  • Capital risk – The risk an investor faces that he or she may lose all or part of the principal amount invested.
  • Commodity risk – The threat that a change in the price of a production input will adversely impact a producer who uses that input.
  • Company risk – The risk that certain factors affecting a specific company may cause its stock to change in price in a different way from stocks as a whole.
  • Concentration risk – Probability of loss arising from heavily lopsided exposure to a particular group of counterparties
  • Counterparty risk – The risk that the other party to an agreement will default.
  • Credit risk – The risk of loss of principal or loss of a financial reward stemming from a borrower’s failure to repay a loan or otherwise meet a contractual obligation.
  • Currency risk – A form of risk that arises from the change in price of one currency against another.
  • Deflation risk – A general decline in prices, often caused by a reduction in the supply of money or credit.
  • Economic risk – the likelihood that an investment will be affected by macroeconomic conditions such as government regulation, exchange rates, or political stability.
  • Hedging risk – Making an investment to reduce the risk of adverse price movements in an asset.
  • Inflation risk – The uncertainty over the future real value (after inflation) of your investment.
  • Interest rate risk – Risk to the earnings or market value of a portfolio due to uncertain future interest rates.
  • Legal risk – risk from uncertainty due to legal actions or uncertainty in the applicability or interpretation of contracts, laws or regulations.
  • Liquidity risk – The risks stemming from the lack of marketability of an investment that cannot be bought or sold quickly enough to prevent or minimize a loss.

CITE: https://www.r2library.com/Resource/Title/0826102549

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Risk Management, Liability Insurance, and Asset Protection Strategies for Doctors and Advisors: Best Practices from Leading Consultants and Certified Medical Planners™

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Understanding Hobson’s Choice in Medicine

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Hobson’s choice  in Public Health

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By Dr. David Edward Marcinko MBA

[From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia]

A Hobson’s choice is a free choice in which only one thing is offered. Because a person may refuse to accept what is offered, the two options are taking it or taking nothing. In other words, one may “take it or leave it.”

The phrase is said to have originated with Thomas Hobson (1544–1631), a livery stable owner in Cambridge, England, who offered customers the choice of either taking the horse in his stall nearest the door or taking none at all.

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An oil portrait of Thomas Hobson, in the National Portrait Gallery, London. He looks straight to the artist and is dressed in typical Tudor dress, with a heavy coat, a ruff, and tie tails

[Thomas Hobson, the National Portrait Gallery, London]

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In Medicine

One of the first examples that springs readily to mind in trying to look for examples of Hobson’s Choice in Medicine is the issue of defensive medicine. While the physician actually has the option of not “shotgunning” a patient (that is, shooting randomly large number of tests in order to cover legal liability and prevent medicolegal backlashes), the risk of missing a diagnosis and the fall outs thereof are so large, that it basically degenerates into a Hobson’s Choice.

The idiosyncrasies of medicine and the way the body reacts to them always leaves us open to the risk of working within the constraints of Hobson’s Choice.

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For example, antibiotics have saved more lives than we can count, yet, an idiosyncratic, unpredictable reaction may just be waiting for us around the corner.

In Public Health

In the Indian Public Health scenario, all that the patients are offered in a primarily paternalistic system is the choice Hobson had offered all those years ago. Much like Henry Ford, who told customers lining up to buy his revolutionary Ford Model T that they could have their cars in “any color so long as it is black”, the Indian system, hobbled by the lack of an empowered public, and a patient choice scheme, functions on the basis of Hobson’s choice.

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Assessment

Even in the clinical sciences, with shared decision making and user driven healthcare still in their infancy in the nation, a paternalistic physician offers naught but “this or none” choice to their patients. While one can say that the lack of general awareness of the public tends to spawn this issue, we cannot shake off our personal stake in this matter just by hiding behind the façade of moral determinism!

Conclusion

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Speaker: If you need a moderator or speaker for an upcoming event, Dr. David E. Marcinko; MBA – Publisher-in-Chief of the Medical Executive-Post – is available for seminar or speaking engagements. Contact: MarcinkoAdvisors@msn.com

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Personal Financial Planning for Physicians and Medical Colleagues

ME Inc = Going it Alone but with a Team

BY DR. DAVID EDWARD MARCINKO MBA CMP®

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The physician, nurse, or other medical professional should easily recognize that there are a vast array of opportunities, obstacles, and pitfalls when it comes to managing one’s finances.  Still, with some modicum of effort, the basic aspects of insurance, investments, taxes, accounting, portfolio management, retirement and estate planning, debt reduction, asset protection and practice management can be largely self-taught. Yet, it is realized that nuances and subtleties can make a well-intentioned financial plan fall short.  The devil truly is in the details.  Moreover, none of these areas can be addressed in isolation. It is common for a solution in one area to cause a new set of problems in another. 

Accordingly, most health care practitioners would be well served to hire [independent, hourly compensated and prn] financial help. Unlike some medical problems, financial issues may not cause any “pain” or other obvious symptoms.  Medical professionals tend to have far more complex financial situations than most lay people. Despite the complexities of the new world of health reform, far too many either do nothing; or give up all control totally, to an external advisor. This either/or mistake can be costly in many ways, and should be avoided. 

In reality, and at various time in their careers, the medical professional needs a team comprised of at least a financial analyst, lawyer, management consultant, risk manager [actuary, mathematician or insurance counselor] and accountant. At various points in time, each member of the team, or significant others, will properly assume a role of more or less importance, but the doctor must usually remain the “quarterback” or leader; in the absence of a truly informed other, or Certified Medical Planner™.

This is necessary because only the doctor has the personal self-mandate with skin in the game, to take a big picture view.  And, rightly or wrongly, investments dominate the information available regarding personal finance and the attention of most physicians.  One is much more likely to need or want to discuss the financial markets with their financial advisor than private letter rulings by the IRS, or with their estate planning attorney or tax accountant. While hiring for expertise is a good idea, there is sinister way advisors goad doctors into using all their retail services; all of the time. That artifice is – the value of time. 

True integrated physician focused and financial planning is at its core a service business, not a product or sales endeavor. And, increasingly money is more likely to be at the top of the list for providers as the healthcare environment is contracting.

So, eschewing the quarterback model of advice, and choosing to self-educate thru this book and elsewhere, may be one of the best efforts a smart physician can make.

ASSESSMENT: Your thoughts are appreciated.

Comprehensive Financial Planning Strategies for Doctors and Advisors: Best Practices from Leading Consultants and Certified Medical Planners™

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PODCAST: What is a “Leveraged” ETF?

WHAT IT IS – HOW IT WORKS

Traditional ETFs: https://medicalexecutivepost.com/2008/01/07/exchange-traded-funds-etfs/

Tax and ETFs: https://medicalexecutivepost.com/2008/01/11/etfs-and-tax-efficiency/

Leveraged DEFINITION:

Leveraged ETFs have received tremendous media attention and are proving to be extremely popular with both individual and institutional investors. There are hundreds of leveraged ETFs, covering virtually every asset class and industry sector. The majority are double-leveraged, but there’s a sizeable group of triple-leveraged ETFs.

For professional investors, leveraged ETFs are useful in statistical arbitrage, short-term tactical strategies, and for use as short-term hedges without the need to roll futures. For individual investors, leveraged ETFs are alluring because of the potential for higher returns.

Citation: https://www.r2library.com/Resource/Title/0826102549

Now, some physicians and Uninformed investors might assume that the leverage returns are generated on a continuous basis, so that if an underlying index is up 5% for a month, the double-leveraged ETF will be up 10% for the same month; if the index is up 10% for 6 months, the ETF will be up 20%, and so forth. That is absolutely not the case. The leverage is determined on a daily basis and the returns for any other period usually will not be double or triple the underlying index.

In order for the leveraged funds to achieve appropriate levels of assets so they can provide their implied leverage, they have to rebalance daily. In the case of an ETF providing long 2-times leveraged exposure, they would typically attain exposure to a notional set of assets equal to 2 times their NAV.

See the source image

Example: An example would be an ETF that takes in 100 units in assets that does a swap with a counterparty to provide exposure to 200 units in performing assets. The rebalancing activity of these funds will almost always be in the same direction as the market.

In essence, a leveraged ETF is essentially marked to market every night. It starts with a clean slate the next day, almost as if the previous day had not existed. This process produces daily leverage results. However, over time, the compounding of this reset can potentially vary the performance of the fund versus its underlying benchmark. This can result in either greater or lesser degrees of final leverage over individual holding periods.

PODCAST: https://www.investopedia.com/terms/l/leveraged-etf.asp

RELATED: https://smartasset.com/investing/what-is-a-leveraged-etf

ASSESSMENT: Your comments and thoughts are appreciated.

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CONTACT: Ann Miller RN MHA

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Ph: 770-448-0769

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***

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What is a “DEAD CAT” BOUNCE?

HOW IT WORKS

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By Dr. David E. Marcinko MBA CMP®

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In finance, a dead cat bounce is a small, brief recovery in the price of a declining stock.

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Derived from the idea that “even a dead cat will bounce if it falls from a great height”, the phrase, which originated on Wall Street, is also popularly applied to any case where a subject experiences a brief resurgence during or following a severe decline.

  • The dead cat bounce is a sudden and temporary increase in stock price caused by investors erroneously believing that the stock price’s reached its lowest.
  • The dead cat bounce can only be fully accurately determined with concrete data in hindsight.
  • Both falsely identifying a stock price trough (i.e., falling victim to a dead cat bounce) and falsely identifying a true price trough as a dead cat bounce will result in negative financial consequences.

CITE: https://www.r2library.com/Resource/Title/0826102549

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Physician Medical Practice “Misrepresentation” Risks

BUSINESS FRAUD RISKS

True Case Report

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By Dr. David Edward Marcinko MBA CMP©

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A Medical Practice Misrepresentation Case Model

Let’s say a physician decided to sell his practice and move to another state. The value of the sale was based, in part, on the yearly gross of the practice. The physician accepted installment payment terms from the buyer and moved to the new state. The buyer began to practice medicine at his new office. Although he was busy, his gross never approached the gross of the prior physician.

Eventually the buyer defaulted on the loan. The selling physician sued for the deficit. The defaulting physician and his forensic consultants then performed an in-depth evaluation of the seller’s practice. The buyer and his team noticed some discrepancies in the billing patterns and practices of the seller. Considering these discrepancies to constitute Medicare and insurance billing fraud, the seller counter-sued the buyer on the grounds of misrepresentation, alleging the gross receipts of the practice purchase price, was grossly inflated.

Citation: https://www.r2library.com/Resource/Title/0826102549

ASSESSMENT: Therefore, the buyer determined that the seller had fraudulently misrepresented the potential of the practice. He also notified state and federal authorities and filed complaints of insurance fraud against the seller.

The seller thought that he would move to the good life in the new state, but his old practice kept him in constant legal trouble.

YOUR THOUGHTS ARE APPRECIATED

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RISK FACTORS COMMON TO PHYSICIANS

SOME COMMON RISK FACTORS FOR MEDICAL COLLEAGUES TO APPRECIATE

BY DR. DAVID E. MARCINKO MBA CMP®

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AN INCOMPLETE LIST = T.N.T.C.

  • Do you and or any family members drive a vehicle?
  • Do you have employees?
  • Do you have a professional malpractice exposure?
  • Do you have legal responsibility to protect medical, EMRs or personal and patient financial data?
  • Are you married and do you have assets not protected by a prenuptial agreement?
  • Do you have a current tax obligation?
  • Do you own a business?
  • Are you a board member, officer, or director of a corporation, foundation, religious or educational organization?
  • Do you engage in activities like hunting, flying, boating, etc?
  • Do you have business or domestic partners whose actions create joint and several liabilities for you?
  • Do you have personal guarantees on real estate or for business loans; or family members?
  • Do you have tail liability for professional services performed in the past?
  • Have you made specific legal or financial representations that others have relied upon in a business context?
  • What kind and what dollar amount of insurance and legal planning have you implemented against these exposures?

***

FOREWORD BY J. WESLEY BOYD MD PhD MA

[Professor of Psychiatry Harvard and Yale University]

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ASSESSMENT: Your thoughts and comments are appreciated.

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What is QUANTITATIVE EASING?

Q.E.

By Dr. David E. Marcinko MBA CMP®

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QE (Quantitative Easing = compound noun)

Although standard definitions will tell you that it is a ‘monetary policy’ used by central banks to stimulate the national economy, in reality it is more as follows:

– A cleverly disguised word that simply means ‘money printing’.

CITE: https://www.r2library.com/Resource/Title/0826102549

Central banks use QE as a disguise for increasing the money supply, as to monetize its increasing debt.

For a more technical analysis of the actual mechanics of QE, I invite you to read the article entitled QE for Dummies.

Examples:

1. The Central Bank embarked on another round of QE in hopes that it can kick-start the economy.

2. Ben Bernanke is set to begin the Fed’s taper of QE as soon as next month.

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CAUTION: Avoid 401-K Retirement Plan RMD Forgetfulness?

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DON’T FORGET to make mandatory withdrawals in retirement!

By Dr. David E. Marcinko MBA CMP®

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SPONSOR: http://www.CertifiedMedicalPlanner.org

Once you do retire, and put your physician or medical career behind you, it’s important to realize that, at some point, the IRS expects you to draw down your 401(k) balance. Starting at age 72, you need to take required minimum distributions (RMDs).

Your annual RMD amount depends on the balance of your 401(k) and a formula that determines your life expectancy.

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RMD Age Jumps to 72 in 2020 After SECURE Act - 401K Specialist

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QUERY: But – What happens if you don’t take your RMD for the year?

ANSWER: Well, you could end up paying a penalty. In fact, it’s a pretty hefty penalty of up to 50% of the amount you were supposed to withdraw. Paying that penalty can be pretty costly for someone living in retirement. As long as you’re vigilant and stay on top of the situation, though, you can avoid the penalty as well as these other costly 401(k) mistakes.

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APPRECIATED.

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What is an ADR / SPDR?

AMERICAN DEPOSITORY RECEIPTS AND S&P RECEIPTS

By Dr. David E. Marcinko MBA CMP®

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AMERICAN DEPOSITORY RECEIPT (ADR) = A receipt evidencing shares of a foreign corporation held on deposit or under the control of a U. S. banking institution; it is used to facilitate transactions and expedite transfer of beneficial ownership for a foreign security in the U.S. Everything is done in dollars and the ADR holder doesn’t have voting rights; essentially the same as an American Depository Share (ADS).

CITE: https://www.r2library.com/Resource/Title/0826102549

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American Depositary Receipts (ADRs) - Meaning, Types, Examples

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A Standard & Poor’s Depositary Receipt, or SPDR, is a type of exchange traded fund that began trading on the American Stock Exchange (AMEX) in 1993 when State Street Global Advisors’ investment management group first issued shares of the SPDR 500 Trust (SPY).

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MORE: https://medicalexecutivepost.com/2008/02/15/about-american-depository-receipts/

S&P: https://medicalexecutivepost.com/2011/01/12/on-standard-poors-depository-receipts/

S&P Index: https://medicalexecutivepost.com/2011/01/15/spdrs-vs-index-mutual-funds/

S&P TAX: https://medicalexecutivepost.com/2011/01/30/do-spdrs-yield-tax-advantages/

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On the TAXATION of Capital Gains and Losses

UPDATE FOR PHYSICIANS AND ALL INVESTORS

By Dr. David E. Marcinko MBA CMP®

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SPONSOR: http://www.CertifiedMedicalPlanner.org

Almost everything you own and use for personal or investment purposes is a capital asset. Examples include a home, personal-use items like household furnishings, and stocks or bonds held as investments. When you sell a capital asset, the difference between the adjusted basis in the asset and the amount you realized from the sale is a capital gain or a capital loss.

CITE: https://www.r2library.com/Resource/Title/0826102549

Generally, an asset’s basis is its cost to the owner, but if you received the asset as a gift or inheritance, refer to Topic No. 703 for information about your basis.

For information on calculating adjusted basis, refer to Publication 551, Basis of Assets. You have a capital gain if you sell the asset for more than your adjusted basis. You have a capital loss if you sell the asset for less than your adjusted basis. Losses from the sale of personal-use property, such as your home or car, aren’t tax deductible.

IRS: https://www.irs.gov/taxtopics/tc409

MORE: https://medicalexecutivepost.com/2021/04/23/bidens-capital-gains-tax-proposal/

RELATED: https://medicalexecutivepost.com/2021/05/01/capital-gains-tax-non-sense/

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MEDICAL RISK MANAGEMENT: Liability Insurance, and Asset Protection Strategies for Doctors and Advisors [Best Practices from Leading Consultants and Certified Medical Planners™]

http://www.CertifiedMedicalPlanner.org

Reviews

“Physicians who don’t understand modern risk management, insurance, business, and asset protection principles are sitting ducks waiting to be taken advantage of by unscrupulous insurance agents and financial advisors; and even their own prospective employers or partners. This comprehensive volume from Dr. David Marcinko and his co-authors will go a long way toward educating physicians on these critical subjects that were never taught in medical school or residency training.”
—Dr. James M. Dahle, MD, FACEP, Editor of The White Coat Investor, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA

“With time at a premium, and so much vital information packed into one well organized resource, this comprehensive textbook should be on the desk of everyone serving in the healthcare ecosystem. The time you spend reading this frank and compelling book will be richly rewarded.”
—Dr. J. Wesley Boyd, MD, PhD, MA, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA

“Physicians have more complex liability challenges to overcome in their lifetime, and less time to do it, than other professionals. Combined with a focus on practicing their discipline, many sadly fail to plan for their own future. They need trustworthy advice on how to effectively protect themselves, their family, and their practice from the many overt and covert risks that could potentially disrupt years of hard work.

Fortunately, this advice is contained within Risk Management, Liability Insurance, and Asset Protection Strategies for Doctors and Advisors: Best Practices from Leading Consultants and Certified Medical Planners™. Written by Dr. David Edward Marcinko, Nurse Hope Rachel Hetico, and their team of risk managers, accountants, insurance agents, attorneys, and physicians, it is uniquely positioned as an integration of applied, academic, and peer-reviewed strategies and research, with case studies from top consultants and Certified Medical Planners™. It contains the latest principles of risk management and asset protection strategies for the specific challenges of modern physicians. My belief is that any doctor who reads and applies even just a portion of this collective wisdom will be fiscally rewarded. The Institute of Medical Business Advisors has produced another outstanding reference for physicians that provide peace of mind inthis unique marketplace! In my opinion, it is a mandatory read for all medical professionals.”
—David K. Luke, MS-PFP, MIM, CMP™, Net Worth Advisory Group, Inc., Sandy, Utah, USA

“This book is a well-constructed, comprehensive, and experiential view of risk management throughout the entire medical practice life-cycle. It is organized in an accessible, high-yield style that is familiar to doctors. Each chapter has case models, examples, insider tips, and useful pearls. I was pleased to see multi-degreed physicians sharing their professional experiences in a textbook on something other than clinical medicine. I can’t decide if this book is right on – over the top – or just plain prescient. Now, after a re-read, I conclude it is all of the above; and much more.”
—Dr. Peter P. Sidoriak, Pottsville, Pennsylvania, USA

“When a practicing physician thinks about the risk exposure resulting from providing patient care, medical malpractice risk immediately comes to mind. But, malpractice and liability risk are barely the tip of the iceberg, and likely not even the biggest risk in the daily practice of medicine. There are risks from having medical records to keep private, risks related to proper billing and collections, risks from patients tripping on your office steps, risks from medical board actions, risk arising from divorce, and the list goes on and on. These liabilities put a doctor’s hard earned assets and career in a very vulnerable position. This new book from Dr. David Marcinko and Prof. Hope Hetico shows doctors the multiple types of risk they face and provides examples of steps to take to minimize them. It is written clearly and to the point, and is a valuable reference for any well-managed practice. Every doctor who wants to take preventive action against the risks coming at them… from all sides needs to read this book.”
—Richard Berning, MD, FACC, New Haven, Connecticut, USA

“This is an excellent companion book to Dr. Marcinko’s Comprehensive Financial Planning Strategies For Doctors and Advisors: Best Practices from Leading Consultants and Certified Medical Planners™. It is all inclusive, yet easy to read, with current citations, references, and much frightening information. I highly recommend this text. It is a fine educational and risk management tool for all doctors and medical professionals.”—Dr. David B. Lumsden, MD, MS, MA, Orthopedic Surgeon, Baltimore, Maryland, USA

“This comprehensive text book provides an in-depth presentation of the cyber security and real risk management, asset protection, and insurance issues facing all medical professions today. It is far beyond the mere medical malpractice concerns I faced when originally entering practice decades ago.”
—Dr. Barbara s. Schlefman, DPM, MS, Family Foot Care, PA, Tucker, Georgia, USA

“Am I over-insured and thus wasting money? Am I under-insured and thus at risk for a liability or other disaster? I never really had the means of answering these questions; until now.”
—Dr. Lloyd M. Krieger, MD, MBA, Rodeo Drive Plastic Surgery, Beverly Hills, California, USA

“I read and use this book and several others from Dr. David Edward Marcinko and his team of advisors.”
—Dr. John Kelley, DO, Orthopedic Surgeon, Tucker, Georgia, USA

“An important step in the risk management, insurance planning, and asset protection process is the assessment of needs. One can create a strong foundation for success only after all needs have been analyzed so that a plan can be constructed and then implemented. This book does an excellent job of recognizing those needs and addressing strategies to reduce them.
—Shikha Mittra, MBA, CFP®, CRPS®, CMFC®, AIF®, President – Retire Smart Consulting LLC, Princeton, New Jersey, USA

“The Certified Medical Planner™ professional designation and education program was created by the Institute of Medical Business Advisors Inc., and Dr. David Edward Marcinko and his team (who wrote this book). It is intended for financial advisors who aim specifically to serve physicians and the medical community. Content focuses not only on the insurance and professional liability issues relevant to physicians, but also provides an understanding of the risky business of medical practice so advisors can help work more successfully with their doctor-clients.” —Michael E. Kitces, MSFS, MTAX, CFP®, CLU, ChFC, RHU, REBC, CASL Reston, Virginia, USA

“I have read this text and used consulting services from the Institute of Medical Business of Advisors, Inc. on several occasions.”
—Dr. Marsha Lee, DO, Radiologists, Norcross, Georgia, USA

“The medical education system is grueling and designed to produce excellence in medical knowledge and patient care. What it doesn’t prepare us for are the slings and arrows that come our way once we actually start practicing medicine. Successfully avoiding these land mines can make all the difference in the world when it comes to having a fulfilling practice. Given the importance of risk management and mitigation, you would think these subjects would be front and center in both medical school and residency – ‘they aren’t.’ Thankfully, the brain trust over at iMBA Inc. has compiled this comprehensive guide designed to help you navigate these mine fields so that you can focus on what really matters – patient care.”
Dennis Bethel, MD, Emergency Medicine Physician

Risk Management, Liability Insurance, and Asset Protection Strategies for Doctors and Advisors : Best Practices from Leading Consultants and Certified Medical Planners™ book cover

ORDER: https://www.routledge.com/Risk-Management-Liability-Insurance-and-Asset-Protection-Strategies-for/Marcinko-Hetico/p/book/9781498725989

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RELATED TEXTS: https://medicalexecutivepost.com/2021/04/29/why-are-certified-medical-planner-textbooks-so-darn-popular/

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What is GAAP?

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HOW IT WORKS

By Dr. David E. Marcinko MBA CMP®

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SPONSOR: http://www.CertifiedMedicalPlanner.org

Generally Accepted Accounting Principles

As a new physician investor, it’s important to know the distinctions between like measurements because the market allows firms to advertise their numbers in ways not otherwise regulated. Often companies will publicize their numbers using either GAAP or non-GAAP measures. GAAP, or generally accepted accounting principles, outlines rules and conventions for reporting financial information. It is a means to standardize financial statements and ensure consistency in reporting.

When a company publicizes its earnings and includes non-GAAP figures, it means it wants to provide investors with an arguably more accurate depiction of the company’s health (for instance, by removing one-time items to smooth out earnings). However, the further a company deviates from GAAP standards, the more room is allocated for some creative accounting and manipulation.

When looking at a company that is publishing non-GAAP numbers, new physician investors should be wary of these pro forma statements, because they may differ greatly from what GAAP deems acceptable.

CITE: https://www.r2library.com/Resource/Title/0826102549

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The Core GAAP Principles

GAAP is set forth in 10 primary principles, as follows:

  1. Principle of consistency: This principle ensures that consistent standards are followed in financial reporting from period to period.
  2. Principle of permanent methods: Closely related to the previous principle is that of consistent procedures and practices being applied in accounting and financial reporting to allow comparison.
  3. Principle of non-compensation: This principle states that all aspects of an organization’s performance, whether positive or negative, are to be reported. In other words, it should not compensate (offset) a debt with an asset.
  4. Principle of prudence: All reporting of financial data is to be factual, reasonable, and not speculative.
  5. Principle of regularity: This principle means that all accountants are to consistently abide by the GAAP.
  6. Principle of sincerity: Accountants should perform and report with basic honesty and accuracy.
  7. Principle of good faith: Similar to the previous principle, this principle asserts that anyone involved in financial reporting is expected to be acting honestly and in good faith.
  8. Principle of materiality: All financial reporting should clearly disclose the organization’s genuine financial position.
  9. Principle of continuity: This principle states that all asset valuations in financial reporting are based on the assumption that the business or other entity will continue to operate going forward.
  10. Principle of periodicity: This principle refers to entities abiding by commonly accepted financial reporting periods, such as quarterly or annually.

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STOCK ORDERS: Positions Doctors Should Know

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ACADEMIC C.V. | DAVID EDWARD MARCINKO

BY DR. DAVID E. MARCINKO MBA CMP®

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SPONSOR: http://www.CertifiedMedicalPlanner.org

Miscellaneous STOCK Orders and MARKET Positions

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Beside market, limit and stop orders, there are some other miscellaneous orders for the physician or guided investor, to know:

A stop limit order is a stop order that, once triggered or activated, becomes a limit order. Realize that it is possible for a stop limit to be triggered and not executed, as the limit price specified by the doctor may not be available.

In addition, there are all or none and fill or kill orders, and even though both require the entire order to be filled, there are distinct differences. An all or none (AON) is an order in which the broker is directed to fill the entire order or none of it.

A fill or kill (FOK) is an order either to buy or to sell a security in which the broker is directed to attempt to fill the entire’ amount of the order immediately and in full, or that it be canceled.

The difference between an all or none and a fill or kill order is that with an all or none order, immediate execution is not required, while immediate execution is a critical component of the fill or kill. Because of the immediacy requirement,

FOK orders are never found on the specialist’s book. Another difference is that AON orders are only permitted for bonds, not stocks, while FOK orders may be used for either.

Also, there exists an immediate or cancel order (IOC), which is an order to buy or sell a security in which the broker is directed to attempt to fill immediately as much of the order as possible and cancel any part remaining. This type of order differs from a fill-or-kill order which requires the entire order to be filled. An IOC order will permit a partial fill. Because of the immediacy requirement, IOC and FOK orders are never found on the specialist’s book.

 Long and Short Positions

A long buy position means that shares are for sale from a market makers inventory or owned by the medical investor outright. Market makers take long positions when customers and other firms wish to sell, and they take short positions when customers and other firms want to buy in quantities larger than the market maker’s inventory. By always being ready, willing, and able to handle orders in this way, market makers assure the investing public of a ready market in the securities in which they are interested. When a security can be bought and sold at firm prices very quickly and easily the security is said to have a high degree of liquidity, also known as marketability. 

A short position investor seeks to make a profit by participating in the decline in the market price of a security.

Now; let’s see how these terms, long and short, apply to transactions by medical investors [rather than market makers] in the securities markets.

When a doctor buys any security – he is said to be taking a long position in that security. This means the investor is an owner of the security. Why does a doctor take a long position in a security? Well, receiving dividend income to make a profit from an increase in the market price is one reason. Once the security has risen sufficiently in price to satisfy the investor’s profit needs, the investor will liquidate his long position, or sell his stock. This would officially be known as a long sale of stock, though few people in the securities business use the label “long sale”. This is the manner in which the above investor had made a profit is the traditional method used; buy low, sell high.

Let’s look at an actual investment in General Motors to investigate this principle further. A medical investor has taken a long position in 100 shares of General Motors stock at a price of $70 per share. This means that the manner in which he can do that is by placing a market order which will be executed at the best “available market price at the time, or by the placing of a buy limit order with a limit price of $70 per share. The investor firmly believes, on the basis of reports that he has read about the automobile industry and General Motors specifically, that at $70 a share, General Motors is a real bargain. He believes that based on its current level of performance, it should be selling for a price of between $80 and $85 per share. But, the doctor investor has a dilemma. He feels certain that the price is going to rise but he cannot watch his computer, or call his broker, every hour of every day. The reason he can’t watch is because patients have to be seen in the office. The only people who watch a computer screen all day are those in the offices of brokerage firms (stock broker registered representatives), and doctor day traders, among others. 

In the above example, with a sell limit order, if the doctor investor was willing to settle for a profit of $12 per share, what order would he place at this time? If you said, “sell at $82 good ’til canceled”, you are correct. Why GTC rather than a day order? Because our doctor investor knows that General Motors is probably not going to rise from $70 to $82 in one day. If he had placed an order to sell at $82 without the GTC qualification, his order would have been canceled at the end of this trading day. He would have had to re-enter the order each morning until he got an execution at 82. Marking the order GTC (or open) relieves him of any need to replace the order every morning. Several weeks later, when General Motors has reached $82 per share in the market, his order to sell at 82 is executed. The medical investor has bought at 70 and sold at 82 and realized a $12 per share profit for his efforts.

Let’s suppose that the medical investor, who has just established a $12 per share profit, has evaluated the performance of General Motors common stock by looking at the market performance over a period of many years. Let’s further assume that the investor has found by evaluating the market price statistics of General Motors that the pattern of movement of General Motors is cyclical. By cyclical, we mean that it moves up and down according to a regular pattern of behavior.

Let’s say the investor has observed that in the past, General Motors had repeated a pattern of moving from prices in the $60 per share range as a low, to a high of approximately $90 per share. Further, our investor has observed that this pattern of performance takes approximately 10 to l2 months to do a full cycle; that is, it moves from about 60 to about 90 and back to about 60 within a period of roughly l2 months. If this pattern repeats itself continually, the investor would be well advised to buy the stock at prices in the low to mid 60’s hold onto it until it moves well into the 80’s, and then sell his long position at a profit. However, what this means is that our investor is going to be invested in General Motors only 6 months of each year. That is, he will invest when the price is low and, usually within half a year, it will reach its high before turning around and going back to its low again. How can the doctor-investor make a profit not only on the rise in price of General Motors in the first 6 months of the cycle, but on the fall in price of General Motors in the second half of the cycle? One technique that is available is the use of the short sale.

The Short Sale

If a doctor investor feels that GM is at its peak of $ 90 per share, he may borrow 100 shares from his brokerage firm and sell the 100 shares of borrowed GM at $ 90. This is selling stock that is not owned and is known as a short sale. The transaction ends when the doctor returns the borrowed securities at a lower price and pockets the difference as a profit. In this case, the doctor investor has sold high, and bought low. 

Odd Lots

Most of the thousands of buy and sell orders executed on a typical day on the NYSE are in 100 share or multi-100 share lots. These are called round lots. Some of the inactive stocks traded at post 30, the non-horseshoe shaped post in the northwest corner of the exchange, are traded in 70 share round lots due to their inactivity. So, while a round lot is normally 700 shares, there are cases where it could be 10 shares. Any trade for less than a round lot is known as an odd lot. The execution of odd lot orders is somewhat different than round lots and needs explanation.

When a stock broker receives an odd lot order from one of his doctor customers, the order is processed in the same manner as any other order. However, when it gets to the floor, the commission broker knows that this is an order that will not be part of the regular auction market. He takes the order to the specialist in that stock and leaves the order with the specialist. One of the clerks assisting the specialist records the order and waits for the next auction to occur in that particular stock. As soon as a round lot trade occurs in that particular stock as a result of an auction at the post, which may occur seconds later, minutes later, or maybe not until the next day, the clerk makes a record of the trade price.

Every odd lot order that has been received since the last round lot trade, whether an order to buy or sell, is then executed at the just noted round lot price, the price at which the next round lot traded after receipt of the customer’s odd lot order, plus or minus the specialist’s “cut “.  Just like everything else he does, the specialist doesn’t work for nothing. Generally, he will add 1/8 of a point to the price per share of every odd lot buy order and reduce the proceeds of each odd lot sale order by 1/8 per share. This is the compensation he earns for the effort of breaking round lots into odd lots. Remember, odd lots are never auctioned but, there can be no odd lot trade unless a round lot trades after receipt of the odd lot order. 

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HBCUs and the Production of Doctors

By Marybeth Gasman, Tiffany Smith,Carmen Ye, and Thai-Huy Nguyen

Abstract

An important issue facing the world of medicine and health care is the field’s lack of diversity, especially regarding African American doctors. African Americans made up 6% of all physicians in the U.S. in 2008, 6.9% of enrolled medical students in 2013 and 7.3% of all medical school applicants.

The existing literature on the lack of diversity within the medical field emphasizes the role that inclusion would play in closing the health disparities among racial groups and the benefits acquired by African Americans through better patient-doctor interactions and further respect for cultural sensitivity. A large portion of current research regarding Black medical students and education focuses on why minority students do not go into medical school or complete their intended pre-med degrees.

Common notions and conclusions are that many institutions do not properly prepare and support students, who despite drive and desire, may lack adequate high school preparation and may go through additional stress unlike their other peers. Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) are institutions that were designed to support African American students by providing an educational learning environment that caters to their unique challenges and cultural understandings. Given that HBCUs have had much success in preparing minority students for STEM fields, and for medical school success more specifically, this article looks at the history of such universities in the context of medical education, their effective practices, the challenges faced by African Americans pursing medical education, and what they can do in the future to produce more Black doctors.

We also highlight the work of Xavier University and Prairie View A&M University, institutions that regularly rank among the top two and top ten producers, respectively, of future African American doctors among colleges and universities.

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READ: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6111265/

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Dr. Marcinko at Tuskegee University

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Today is WORLD MENTAL HEALTH Day 2021

By Ann Miller RN MHA

Good Morning

Today is World Mental Health Day. Since one of the ways you can practice good mental health is to express gratitude, I’d like to express my gratitude to my friend and ME-P founder and executive chairman Dr. David Edward Marcinko for working to destigmatize mental health issues.

A lot of people look up to David. And they should—he started this ME-P from nothing and was relentless in building the company to the digital media ship it is today.

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RELATED: https://medicalexecutivepost.com/2021/07/28/mental-health-entrepreneurial-start-up/

DICTIONARY: https://www.amazon.com/Dictionary-Health-Insurance-Managed-Care/dp/0826149944/ref=sr_1_4?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1275315485&sr=1-4

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Image result for world mental health day 2021

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World Mental Health Day (10 October) is an international day for global mental health education, awareness and advocacy against social stigma. It was first celebrated in 1992 at the initiative of the World Federation for Mental Health, a global mental health organization with members and contacts in more than 150 countries.

This day, each October, thousands of supporters come to celebrate this annual awareness program to bring attention to mental illness and its major effects on peoples’ lives worldwide.

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What is Medical Practice FINANCIAL RATIO ANALYSIS?

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BY DR. DAVID E. MARCINKO MBA CMP®

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SPONSOR: http://www.CertifiedMedicalPlanner.org

Financial ratio analysis typically involves the calculation of ratios that are financial and operational measures representative of the financial status of a clinic or medical practice enterprise.  These ratios are evaluated in terms of their relative comparison to generally established industry norms, which may be expressed as positive or negative trends for that industry sector. The ratios selected may function as several different measures of operating performance or financial condition of the subject entity.

CITE: https://www.r2library.com/Resource/Title/0826102549

Common types of financial indicators that are measured by ratio analysis include:

  • Liquidity. Liquidity ratios measure the ability of an organization to meet cash obligations as they become due, i.e., to support operational goals. Ratios above the industry mean generally indicate that the organization is in an advantageous position to better support immediate goals.  The current ratio, which quantifies the relationship between assets and liabilities, is an indicator of an organization’s ability to meet short-term obligations.  Managers use this measure to determine how quickly assets are converted into cash.
  • Activity. Activity ratios, also called efficiency ratios, indicate how efficiently the organization utilizes its resources or assets, including cash, accounts receivable, salaries, inventory, property, plant, and equipment.  Lower ratios may indicate an inefficient use of those assets.
  • Leverage. Leverage ratios, measured as the ratio of long-term debt to net fixed assets, are used to illustrate the proportion of funds, or capital, provided by shareholders (owners) and creditors to aid analysts in assessing the appropriateness of an organization’s current level of debt.  When this ratio falls equal to or below the industry norm, the organization is typically not considered to be at significant risk.
  • Profitability. Indicates the overall net effect of managerial efficiency of the enterprise. To determine the profitability of the enterprise for benchmarking purposes, the analyst should first review and make adjustments to the owner(s) compensation, if appropriate.  Adjustments for the market value of the “replacement cost” of the professional services provided by the owner are particularly important in the valuation of professional medical practices for the purpose of arriving at an ”economic level” of profit.

The selection of financial ratios for analysis and comparison to the organization’s performance requires careful attention to the homogeneity of data. Benchmarking of intra-organizational data (i.e., internal benchmarking) typically proves to be less variable across several different measurement periods.

However, the use of data from external facilities for comparison may introduce variation in measurement methodology and procedure. In the latter case, use of a standard chart of accounts for the organization or recasting the organization’s data to a standard format can effectively facilitate an appropriate comparison of the organization’s operating performance and financial status data to survey results.

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Comprehensive Financial Planning Strategies for Doctors and Advisors: Best Practices from Leading Consultants and Certified Medical Planners™

MORE: https://www.routledge.com/Comprehensive-Financial-Planning-Strategies-for-Doctors-and-Advisors-Best/Marcinko-Hetico/p/book/9781482240283

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The “IMPLIED” STOCK MARKET OPEN?

What is it – How it works?

By Dr. David E. Marcinko MBA CMP®

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SPONSOR: http://www.CertifiedMedicalPlanner.org

If you’ve ever listened to an early morning financial news broadcast, you’ve heard a reference to “futures” and how they affect the stock market before it opens. Physicians Investors follow the futures because it provides an indication of where stocks are headed at the opening bell. One of the most widely followed futures is the Dow Futures, whose underlying value is based on the Dow Jones Industrial Average, an index of 30 major U.S. companies.

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DEFINITION: After the markets close at 4 pm New York time, implied open prices of the Dow Jones Industrial Average, S&P 500 Index, and NASDAQ, which fluctuate from minute to minute, can be calculated.

Considering the DJIA as an example, the basis of calculating implied open is the price of a “DJX index option futures contract “.

CITE: https://www.r2library.com/Resource/Title/0826102549

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