HEDGE FUNDS: History in Brief



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The investment profession has come a long way since the door-to-door stock salesmen of the 1920s sold a willing public on worthless stock certificates. The stock market crash of 1929 and ensuing Great Depression of the 1930s forever changed the way investment operations are run. A bewildering array of laws and regulations sprung up, all geared to protecting the individual investor from fraud. These laws also set out specific guidelines on what types of investment can be marketed to the general public – and allowed for the creation of a set of investment products specifically not marketed to the general public. These early-mid 20th century lawmakers specifically exempted from the definition of “general public,” for all practical purposes, those investors that meet certain minimum net worth guidelines.

The lawmakers decided that wealth brings the sophistication required to evaluate, either independently or together with wise counsel, investment options that fall outside the mainstream. Not surprisingly, an investment industry catering to such wealthy individuals, such as doctors and healthcare professionals, and qualifying institutions has sprung up.


The original hedge fund was an investment partnership started by A.W. Jones in 1949. A financial writer prior to starting his investment management career, Mr. Jones is widely credited as being the prototypical hedge fund manager. His style of investment in fact gave the hedge fund its name – although Mr. Jones himself called his fund a “hedged fund.” Mr. Jones attempted to “hedge,” or protect, his investment partnership against market swings by selling short overvalued securities while at the same time buying undervalued securities. Leverage was an integral part of the strategy. Other managers followed in Mr. Jones’ footsteps, and the hedge fund industry was born.

In those early days, the hedge fund industry was defined by the types of investment operations undertaken – selling short securities, making liberal use of leverage, engaging in arbitrage and otherwise attempting to limit one’s exposure to market swings. Today, the hedge fund industry is defined more by the structure of the investment fund and the type of manager compensation employed.

The changing definition is largely a sign of the times. In 1949, the United States was in a unique state. With the memory of Great Depression still massively influencing common wisdom on stocks, the post-war euphoria sparked an interest in the securities markets not seen in several decades. Perhaps it is not so surprising that at such a time a particularly reflective financial writer such as A.W. Jones would start an investment operation featuring most prominently the protection against market swings rather than participation in them. 

Citation: https://www.r2library.com/Resource/Title/0826102549

Apart from a few significant hiccups – 1972-73, 1987 and 2006-07 being most prominent – the U.S. stock markets have been on quite a roll for quite a long time now. So today, hedge funds come in all flavors – many not hedged at all. Instead, the concept of a private investment fund structured as a partnership, with performance incentive compensation for the manager, has come to dominate the mindscape when hedge funds are discussed. Hence, we now have a term in “hedge fund” that is not always accurate in its description of the underlying activity. In fact, several recent events have contributed to an even more distorted general understanding of hedge funds.

During 1998, the high profile Long Term Capital Management crisis and the spectacular currency losses experienced by the George Soros organization both contributed to a drastic reversal of fortune in the court of public opinion for hedge funds. Most hedge fund managers, who spend much of their time attempting to limit risk in one way or another, were appalled at the manner with which the press used the highest profile cases to vilify the industry as dangerous risk-takers. At one point during late 1998, hedge funds were even blamed in the lay press for the currency collapses of several developing nations; whether this was even possible got short thrift in the press.

Needless to say, more than a few managers have decided they did not much appreciate being painted with the same “hedge fund” brush. Alternative investment fund, private investment fund, and several other terms have been promoted but inadequately adopted. As the memory of 1998 and 2007 fades, “hedge fund” may once again become a term embraced by all private investment managers.

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ASSESSMENT: Physicians, and all investors, should be aware, however, that several different terms defining the same basic structure might be used. Investors should therefore become familiar with the structure of such funds, independent of the label. The Securities Exchange Commission calls such funds “privately offered investment companies” and the Internal Revenue Service calls them “securities partnerships.”

Your thoughts are appreciated.

Comprehensive Financial Planning Strategies for Doctors and Advisors: Best Practices from Leading Consultants and Certified Medical Planners™

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PODCAST: The Future of Healthcare Looks to Medicare’s Past?

See the Future of Healthcare By Looking to Medicare’s Past


Texas CEO Magazine 2016 Economic Forecast: Dallas - Texas ...



Desire for a Healthcare ‘Safety Net’ Goes Back Almost 100 years to President F.D.R. and His “New Deal

FDR Was Able to Pass Social Security, but He Also Wanted a Healthcare Safety Net Too.

Presidents Truman and Kennedy Also Wanted a Federally-Funded Healthcare Safety Net.

LBJ Carried the Torch of the Healthcare Safety Net. He Was Able to Have Medicare Legislation Passed in 1965 by Combining 3 Separate Proposals and Acts:

1) Hospital Insurance

2) Doctor Insurance That Was Voluntary

3) the State-Administered Kerr-Mills Act 

Hospital Insurance Became Medicare Part A. Doctor Insurance Became Medicare Part B. The Kerr-Mills Act Became Medicaid.

Presidents Carter and Clinton Also Wanted to Expand the Healthcare Safety Net. President Obama Expanded the Healthcare Safety Net with Passage of Obamacare. President Biden is Seeking to Expand the Healthcare Safety Net Too.

The Arc of Government-Funded Healthcare Stretches Back Almost 100 Years and Will Inevitably Result in the Full Government Payment for Healthcare in America.

It’s Not a Question of If, But When.

Implication: United Health Group is Making Many Acquisitions to Become a Vertically Integrated Healthcare Company to Position Itself as a Major Government Contractor for the Eventual Federal Takeover.

PODCAST: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OAh7Rl7w1wM

Your thoughts are appreciated.




CDNs and What They Mean to Physicians


[Anonymous IT Expert]

DOCTOR – Do you like the internet? Do you use EMRs/EHRs? Do you like fast internet? Of course you do.

But, without a strong infrastructure of content delivery networks (CDNs), website loading times would be too slow to stream tele-health/tele-medicine visits or tela-radiology services; not to mention Netflix, or argue with Reddit strangers or your patients; etc.

CDNs are geographically distributed networks of servers that handle processing and speed up internet delivery. In practice, CDNs make website content like HTML pages, JavaScript files, style-sheets, images, and videos load faster. They also reduce bandwidth costs, handle more traffic, and provide a little security protection. 

  • CDNs don’t actually host web content, but instead keep cached versions of it at the ready in edge servers. 


How CDN Works? How to Find the Cheapest CDN Provider?


Fastly is one of a number of significant CDN providers that help form the infrastructure of the internet. And while the outage shows the breadth of its reach, it’s far from the biggest player—Akami, Cloudflare, and Amazon CloudFront take up 75% of revenue in CDN space, per Intricately.

But Fastly, one of the world’s largest cloud computing companies itself, just had an outage that shut down its CDN service, affecting major websites including the New York Times, HBO Max, and the British government’s homepage. 

ASSESSMENT: Were you or your clinic or hospital affected? Your thoughts and comments are appreciated.

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