What is Cyber-Security SPOOFING and PHISHING?

By Staff Reporters

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Spoofing 

Spoofing is when someone disguises an email address, sender name, phone number, or website URL—often just by changing one letter, symbol, or number—to convince you that you are interacting with a trusted source.

For example, you might receive an email that looks like it’s from your boss, a company you’ve done business with, or even from someone in your family—but it actually isn’t.

Criminals count on being able to manipulate you into believing that these spoofed communications are real, which can lead you to download malicious software, send money, or disclose personal, financial, or other sensitive information.

Phishing 

Phishing schemes often use spoofing techniques to lure you in and get you to take the bait. These scams are designed to trick you into giving information to criminals that they shouldn’t have access to.

In a phishing scam, you might receive an email that appears to be from a legitimate business and is asking you to update or verify your personal information by replying to the email or visiting a website. The web address might look similar to one you’ve used before. The email may be convincing enough to get you to take the action requested.

But once you click on that link, you’re sent to a spoofed website that might look nearly identical to the real thing—like your bank or credit card site—and asked to enter sensitive information like passwords, credit card numbers, banking PINs, etc. These fake websites are used solely to steal your information.

Phishing has evolved and now has several variations that use similar techniques:

  • Vishing scams happen over the phone, voice email, or VoIP (voice over Internet Protocol) calls.
  • Smishing scams happen through SMS (text) messages.
  • Pharming scams happen when malicious code is installed on your computer to redirect you to fake websites.

Spoofing and phishing are key parts of business email compromise scams.

MORE: https://www.fbi.gov/scams-and-safety/common-scams-and-crimes/spoofing-and-phishing

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DICTIONARY: https://www.amazon.com/Dictionary-Health-Information-Technology-Security/dp/0826149952/ref=sr_1_5?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1254413315&sr=1-5

RELATED: https://www.amazon.com/Comprehensive-Financial-Planning-Strategies-Advisors/dp/1482240289/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&qid=1418580820&sr=8-1&keywords=david+marcinko

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Assessment of Workplace Violence in Healthcare

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ON MEDICAL WORKPLACE VIOLENCE

By Eugene Schmuckler PhD, MBA CTA

By Dr. David E. Marcinko MBA

Chapter 07: Workplace Violence

NOTE: The ME-P can only speculate how this healthcare workplace violence information from a public safety expert, applies to the recent spate of national violence – regardless of venue – or how any lessons learned are applicable in this case; or not.

1. What Is Workplace Violence?

Workplace violence is more than physical assault — it is any act in which a person is abused, threatened, intimidated, harassed, or assaulted in his or her employment. Swearing, verbal abuse, playing “pranks,” spreading rumors, arguments, property damage, vandalism, sabotage, pushing, theft, physical assaults, psychological trauma, anger-related incidents, rape, arson, and murder are all examples of workplace violence. The Registered Nurses Association of Nova Scotia defines violence as “any behavior that results in injury whether real or perceived by an individual, including, but not limited to, verbal abuse, threats of physical harm, and sexual harassment.” As such, workplace violence includes:

  • threatening behavior — such as shaking fists, destroying property, or throwing objects;
  • verbal or written threats — any expression of intent to inflict harm;
  • harassment — any behavior that demeans, embarrasses, humiliates, annoys, alarms, or verbally abuses a person and that is known or would be expected to be unwelcome. This includes words, gestures, intimidation, bullying, or other inappropriate activities;
  • verbal abuse — swearing, insults, or condescending language;
  • muggings — aggravated assaults, usually conducted by surprise with intent to rob; or
  • physical attacks — hitting, shoving, pushing, or kicking.

Workplace violence can be brought about by a number of different actions in the workplace. It may also be the result of non-work related situations such as domestic violence or “road rage.” Workplace violence can be inflicted by an abusive employee, a manager, supervisor, co-worker, customer, family member, or even a stranger.  The University of Iowa Injury Prevention Research Center classifies most workplace violence into one of four categories.

  • Type I Criminal Intent — Results while a criminal activity (e.g., robbery) is being committed and the perpetrator had no legitimate relationship to the workplace.
  • Type II Customer/Client — The perpetrator is a customer or client at the workplace (e.g., healthcare patient) and becomes violent while being assisted by the worker.
  • Type III Worker on Worker — Employees or past employees of the workplace are the perpetrators.
  • Type IV Personal Relationship — The perpetrator usually has a personal relationship with an employee (e.g., domestic violence in the workplace).

2. Effects of Workplace Violence

The healthcare sector continues to lead all other industry sectors in incidents of non-fatal workplace assaults. In 2000, 48% of all non-fatal injuries from violent acts against workers occurred in the healthcare sector. Nurses, nurses’ aides, and orderlies suffer the highest proportion of these injuries. Non-fatal assaults on healthcare workers include assaults, bruises, lacerations, broken bones, and concussions. These reported incidents include only injuries severe enough to result in lost time from work. Of significance is that the median time away from work as a result of an assault or other violent act is 5 days. Almost 25% of these injuries result in longer than 20 days away from work. Obviously, this is quite costly to the facility as well as to the victim.

A study undertaken in Canada found that 46% of 8,780 staff nurses experienced one or more types of violence in the last five shifts worked. Physical assault was defined as being spit on, bitten, hit, or pushed.

Both Canadian and U.S. researchers have described the prevalence of verbal threats and physical assaults in intensive care, emergency departments, and general wards. A study in Florida reported that 100% of emergency department nurses experience verbal threats and 82% reported being physically assaulted. Similar results were found in a study undertaken in a Canadian hospital. Possible reasons for the high incidence of violence in emergency departments include presence of weapons, frustration with long waits for medical care, dissatisfaction with hospital policies, and the levels of violence in the community served by the emergency department.

Similar findings have been reported in studies of mental health professionals, nursing home and long-term care employees, as well as providers of service in home and community health.

Violence in hospitals usually results from patients, and occasionally family members, who feel frustrated, vulnerable, and out of control. Transporting patients, long waits for service, inadequate security, poor environmental design, and unrestricted movement of the public are associated with increased risk of assault in hospitals and may be significant factors in social services workplaces as well. Finally, lack of staff training and the absence of violence prevention programming are associated with elevated risk of assault in hospitals. Although anyone working in a hospital may become a victim of violence, nurses and aides who have the most direct contact with patients are at higher risk. Other hospital personnel at increased risk of violence include emergency response personnel, hospital safety officers, and all healthcare providers. Personnel working in large medical practices fall into this category as well. Although no area is totally immune from acts of violence it most frequently occurs in psychiatric wards, emergency rooms, waiting rooms, and geriatric settings.

Many medical facilities mistakenly focus on systems, operations, infrastructure, and public relations when planning for crisis management and emergency response: they tend to overlook the people. Obviously, no medical facility can operate without employees who are healthy enough to return to work and to be productive. Individuals who have been exposed to a violent incident need to be assured of their safety.

The costs associated with workplace violence crises are not limited to healthcare dollars, absenteeism rates, legal battles, or increased insurance rates. If mishandled, traumatic events can severely impair trust between patients, employees, their peers, and their managers. Without proper planning, an act of violence can disrupt normal group processes, interfere with the delivery of crucial information, and temporarily impair management effectiveness. It may also lead to other negative outcomes such as low employee morale, increased job stress, increased work turnover, reduced trust of management and co-workers, and a hostile working environment.

Data collected by the U.S. Department of Justice shows workplace violence to be the fastest growing category of murder in the country. Homicide, including domestic homicides, is the leading cause of on-the-job death for women, and is the second leading cause for men. The National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) found that an average of 20 workers is murdered each week in the U.S. In addition, an estimated 1 million workers — 28,000 per week — are victims of non-fatal workplace assaults each year. Workplace attacks, threats, or harassment can include the following monetary costs:

  • $13.5 billion in medical costs per year;
  • 500,000 employees missing 1,750,000 days of work per year; with a 41% increase in stress levels with the concomitant related costs!

workplace-violence

More links: 

Racism in Medicine:

MORE: Work Violence

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About the Author

Dr. Eugene Schmuckler was Coordinator of Behavioral Sciences at a Public Training Center before accepting his current position as Academic Dean for iMBA, Inc. He is an international expert on personal re-engineering and coaching whose publications have been translated into Dutch and Russian. He now focuses on career development, change management, coaching and stress reduction for physicians and financial professionals. Behavioral finance, life planning and economic risk tolerance assessments are additional areas of focus. Formerly, Dr. Schmuckler was a senior adjunct faculty member at the Keller Graduate School of Management, Atlanta. He taught courses in Organizational Behavior and Leadership, Strategic Staffing, Training and Development, and the capstone course in human resources management. He is a member of a number of professional organizations including the American Psychological Association, the Academy of Management, and the Society for Human Resource Management. A native of Brooklyn New York, he received his BS degree in Psychology from Brooklyn College. He earned his MBA and PhD degrees in Industrial and Organizational Psychology from Louisiana State University. Currently, he serves on the executive BOD for:  www.MedicalBusinessAdvisors.com  and is the Dean of Admissions for www.CertifiedMedicalPlanner.org

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What is SWATTING?

By Staff Reporters

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Swatting refers to a harassment technique most that entails generating an emergency law enforcement response against a target victim under false pretenses. Swatters do this by making phone calls to emergency lines like 911 and falsely reporting a violent emergency situation, such as a shooting or hostage situation.

Swatters often consider what they are doing to be a prank, but it can come with serious consequences. Swatting occupies law enforcement response teams, making them unavailable to respond to real emergencies. There have even been swatting incidents where law enforcement officers were shot, and in one case the victim of the swatting was shot dead by law enforcement.

In recent years, the US has tried to dissuade swatters by imposing serious penalties for the perpetrators, but swatting continues to be an issue. Swatting is often hard for law enforcement to address, since many swatters use sophisticated techniques to hide their identity. Swatters disguise themselves using techniques like caller ID spoofing, where they utilize software to make it appear as though they are a local caller when they could be anywhere in the world.

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DICTIONARY: https://www.amazon.com/Dictionary-Health-Information-Technology-Security/dp/0826149952/ref=sr_1_5?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1254413315&sr=1-5

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What is “Consumption Smoothing”?

By Staff Reporters

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Consumption smoothing is the economic concept used to express the desire of people to have a stable path of consumption. People desire to translate their consumption from periods of high income to periods of low income to obtain more stability and predictability. There exist many states of the world, which means there are many possible outcomes that can occur throughout an individual’s life. Therefore, to reduce the uncertainty that occurs, people choose to give up some consumption today to prevent against an adverse outcome in the future. In order for one to adequately and properly prepare for unforeseen circumstances that can occur in the future, we must start planning today, putting money aside for when these unforeseen circumstances happen.

CITE: https://www.r2library.com/Resource/Title/082610254

SLIDESHOW: https://www.msn.com/en-us/money/news/consumption-smoothing-what-it-is-and-why-it-matters-for-your-happiness/ss-AAZDawE?cvid=2cef564778da43e9a78f601dc0c5a56a#image=1

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What is “Mark to Market” Valuation?

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By Staff Reporters

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Marking to Market (MTM) means valuing the security at the current trading price. Therefore, it results in the traders’ daily settlement of profits and losses due to the changes in its market value.

  • Suppose on a particular trading day, the value of the security rises. In that case, the trader taking a long position (buyer) will collect the money equal to the security’s change in value from the trader holding the short position (seller).
  • On the other hand, if the security value falls, the selling trader will collect money from the buyer. The money is equal to the change in the value of the security. It should be noted that the value at maturity does not change much. However, the parties involved in the contract pay gains and losses to each other at the end of every trading day.

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Examples of Mark to Market

An exchange marks traders’ accounts to their market values daily by settling the gains and losses that result due to changes in the value of the security. There are two counterparties on either side of a futures contract—a long trader and a short trader. The trader who holds the long position in the futures contract is usually bullish, while the trader shorting the contract is considered bearish.

If at the end of the day, the futures contract entered into goes down in value, the long margin account will be decreased and the short margin account increased to reflect the change in the value of the derivative.

An increase in value results in an increase in the margin account holding the long position and a decrease in the short futures account.

According to investopedia, for example, to hedge against falling commodity prices, a wheat farmer takes a short position in 10 wheat futures contracts on November 21st. Since each contract represents 5,000 bushels, the farmer is hedging against a price decline on 50,000 bushels of wheat. If the price of one contract is $4.50 on Nov. 21st. the wheat farmer’s account will be recorded as $4.50 x 50,000 bushels = $225,000.

DayFutures PriceChange in ValueGain/LossCumulative Gain/LossAccount Balance
1$4.50   225,000
2$4.55+0.05-2,500-2,500222,500
3$4.53-0.02+1,000-1,500223,500
4$4.46-0.07+3,500+2,000227,000
5$4.39-0.07+3,500+5,500230,500

Because the farmer has a short position in wheat futures, a fall in the value of the contract will result in an increase in their account. Likewise, an increase in value will result in a decrease in account value. For example, on Day 2, wheat futures increased by $4.55 – $4.50 = $0.05, resulting in a loss for the day of $0.05 x 50,000 bushels = $2,500. While this amount is subtracted from the farmer’s account balance, the exact amount will be added to the account of the trader on the other end of the transaction holding a long position on wheat futures.

The daily mark to market settlements will continue until the expiration date of the futures contract or until the farmer closes out his position by going long on a contract with the same maturity.

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CITE: https://www.r2library.com/Resource/Title/082610254

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PODCAST: Nurses Go on Strike

By Eric Bricker MD

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HOSPITAL: https://www.amazon.com/Financial-Management-Strategies-Healthcare-Organizations/dp/1466558733/ref=sr_1_3?ie=UTF8&qid=1380743521&sr=8-3&keywords=david+marcinko

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PODCAST: Turning a PBS Interviewer into an NFT Interviewee

On the Non-Fungible Token Market

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By Vitaliy Katseneson CFA

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Turning a PBS Interviewer into Interviewee
I was interviewed on PBS Newshour about the insanity that is happening in the NFT (non-fungible token) market. You can watch it here. If you read my “I Kid You Not Crazy” article, then you know everything I have to say about NFTs and cryptocurrency. I can sum up my thoughts on NFTs in one sentence: NFTs, just like cryptocurrencies, are a technology of the future, but a speculative bubble induced by excess global liquidity in the present. 

I encourage you to watch this eight-minute video – PBS did a great job. 

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https://www.amazon.com/Comprehensive-Financial-Planning-Strategies-Advisors/dp/1482240289/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&qid=1418580820&sr=8-1&keywords=david+marcinko

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https://www.amazon.com/Dictionary-Health-Information-Technology-Security/dp/0826149952/ref=sr_1_5?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1254413315&sr=1-5

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