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    As a former Dean and appointed University Professor and Endowed Department Chair, Dr. David Edward Marcinko MBA was a NYSE broker and investment banker for a decade who was respected for his unique perspectives, balanced contrarian thinking and measured judgment to influence key decision makers in strategic education, health economics, finance, investing and public policy management.

    Dr. Marcinko is originally from Loyola University MD, Temple University in Philadelphia and the Milton S. Hershey Medical Center in PA; as well as Oglethorpe University and Emory University in Georgia, the Atlanta Hospital & Medical Center; Kellogg-Keller Graduate School of Business and Management in Chicago, and the Aachen City University Hospital, Koln-Germany. He became one of the most innovative global thought leaders in medical business entrepreneurship today by leveraging and adding value with strategies to grow revenues and EBITDA while reducing non-essential expenditures and improving dated operational in-efficiencies.

    Professor David Marcinko was a board certified surgical fellow, hospital medical staff President, public and population health advocate, and Chief Executive & Education Officer with more than 425 published papers; 5,150 op-ed pieces and over 135+ domestic / international presentations to his credit; including the top ten [10] biggest drug, DME and pharmaceutical companies and financial services firms in the nation. He is also a best-selling Amazon author with 30 published academic text books in four languages [National Institute of Health, Library of Congress and Library of Medicine].

    Dr. David E. Marcinko is past Editor-in-Chief of the prestigious “Journal of Health Care Finance”, and a former Certified Financial Planner® who was named “Health Economist of the Year” in 2010. He is a Federal and State court approved expert witness featured in hundreds of peer reviewed medical, business, economics trade journals and publications [AMA, ADA, APMA, AAOS, Physicians Practice, Investment Advisor, Physician’s Money Digest and MD News] etc.

    Later, Dr. Marcinko was a vital and recruited BOD  member of several innovative companies like Physicians Nexus, First Global Financial Advisors and the Physician Services Group Inc; as well as mentor and coach for Deloitte-Touche and other start-up firms in Silicon Valley, CA.

    As a state licensed life, P&C and health insurance agent; and dual SEC registered investment advisor and representative, Marcinko was Founding Dean of the fiduciary and niche focused CERTIFIED MEDICAL PLANNER® chartered professional designation education program; as well as Chief Editor of the three print format HEALTH DICTIONARY SERIES® and online Wiki Project.

    Dr. David E. Marcinko’s professional memberships included: ASHE, AHIMA, ACHE, ACME, ACPE, MGMA, FMMA, FPA and HIMSS. He was a MSFT Beta tester, Google Scholar, “H” Index favorite and one of LinkedIn’s “Top Cited Voices”.

    Marcinko is “ex-officio” and R&D Scholar-on-Sabbatical for iMBA, Inc. who was recently appointed to the MedBlob® [military encrypted medical data warehouse and health information exchange] Advisory Board.



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Understanding Over the Counter (OTC) Markets

A Decentralized, Dealer-2-Dealer Market

By Dr. David Edward Marcinko MBA



Securities are bought and sold every day by physicians and other investors who never meet each other. The market impersonally enables transfer (or sale) of securities from individuals who are selling to those who are buying. These trades may occur on an organized exchange such as the New York Stock Exchange, or, a decentralized, dealer to dealer market, which is called the over-the-counter (OTC).  Any transaction that does not take place on the floor of an exchange, takes place over-the-counter.

A Negotiated Market

The over-the-counter market is a national negotiated market, without a central market place, without a trading floor, composed of a network of thousands of brokers and dealers who make securities transactions for themselves and their customers. Professional buyers and sellers seek each other out electronically and by telephone and negotiate prices on the most favorable basis that can be achieved. Often, these negotiations are accomplished in a matter of seconds, there is no auction procedure comparable to that on the floor of an exchange.

The over-the-counter market is far the largest market in terms of numbers of securities issues traded. There are over 40,000 issues on which regular quotations are published OTC, while there are less than 5,000 stocks listed on all securities exchanges. There are frequently days when the reported volume of over-the-counter trades exceeds that of the NYSE. What really is the over-the-counter market? Is it where securities of inferior quality trade? Here is a list to remember of the types of securities traded exclusively over-the-counter:

  • All Government bonds .
  • All municipal bonds.
  • All mutual funds.
  • All new issues (primary distributions).
  • All variable annuities.
  • All tax shelter programs.
  • All equipment trust certificates.

Of course, the OTC market is also where all of the “unseasoned” issues are traded and most of them are quite speculative, but there certainly are many high quality issues available over-the- counter. Now, let’s take a look at how this over-the-counter market works.

The Market Maker

Whereas, the “main player” on the exchange is the specialist, his OTC counter part, in terms of importance, is the market maker. In the over-the-counter market, many securities firms act as dealers by creating and maintaining markets in selected securities. Dealers act as principals in a securities transaction and buy and sell securities for their own account and risk. Since they do not act as agents or brokers but instead as principals or dealers in securities transactions, they do not receive any commission for their services but instead buy at one price and sell at a higher price making a profit from “mark-up” on the security price. A dealer is said to have a position in a stock when he purchases and holds a security in his inventory. He, of course takes a risk that the market price of the security he holds may decline in value. This is how dealers make money; they buy wholesale and sell it retail, and the physician investor pays retail.

The OTC market bears little resemblance to the one of the mid-sixties. The major difference has been the electronic technological advances as embodied by the NASDAQ system. NASDAQ stands for National Association of Securities Dealers Automated Quotation system. Back in 1966, if you wanted to find out who was the market maker in the particular security you would go to a brightly colored stack of papers called the pink sheets, containing a listing, alphabetically, of over-the-counter stocks and underneath each issue is listed the name of one or more market makers, securities firms willing to trade that stock. After each firm name is the firm’s telephone number and a ‘bid and ask price”, that is, an approximate price representing what the dealer is asking for the stock and is bidding for the stock. 

Back 35-40 years ago, the only way of locating a market maker was by using the pink sheets, while O-T-C traded corporate bonds are quoted on yellow sheets. Under certain conditions, it could take a good deal of effort to try to get the best deal. Today, with the computer that sits on doctor’s desks, or a mobile device or smart-phone, you can push a few buttons and instantaneously see the best bid and the best offer that exists right now on over 5,000 of the most active over-the- counter stocks. Not only that, you can pull up the names of every market maker in that particular stock and the actual (firm) quotes on those securities right now.

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Electronic Sources of Securities Information

Level 1 service, available on the stock broker’s desk top, provides price information only on the highest bid and the lowest offer (the inside market). No market makers are identified, and since this is an inside quote, it may not be used by the registered representative (stock broker) for giving firm quotes. 

Level 2 service provides a doctor subscriber with price information and quotation sizes of all participating registered market makers. When a trader, or medical investor, looks at his computer screen on Level 2, he sees who’s making a market, their firm bid – or – ask; and the size of the market. One can get firm calls from level 2 information.

Level 3 service takes it one step further; and allows registered market makers to enter bid and ask prices (quotes) and quotation sizes into the NASDAQ system and to report their trades. This is the level of service maintained by market makers.


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