MENTAL ACCOUNTING: What is it?

By Dr. David E. Marcinko MBA CMP®

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SPONSOR: http://www.CertifiedMedicalPlanning.org

DEFINITION: Mental accounting attempts to describe the process whereby people code, categorize and evaluate economic outcomes. The concept was first named by Richard Thaler. Mental accounting deals with the budgeting and categorization of expenditures. People budget money into mental accounts for expenses or expense categories

CITE: https://www.r2library.com/Resource/Title/0826102549

Mental Accounting is the act of bucketizing investments and then reviewing the performance of the individual buckets separately (e.g. investing at low savings rate while paying high credit card interest rates).

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Mental Accounting • Money is

Examples of mental accounting are: (1) matching costs to benefits (wanting to pay for vacation before taking it and getting paid for work after it was done, even though from perspective of time value of money the opposite should be preferred0, (2) aversion to debt (don’t like long-term debt for short-term benefit), (3) sunk-cost effect (illogically considering non-recoverable costs when making forward-going decisions).

In investing, treating buckets separately and ignoring interaction (correlations) induces people not to sell losers (even though they get tax benefits), prevent them from investing in the stock market because it is too risky in isolation (however much less so when looked at as part of the complete portfolio including other asset classes and labor income and occupied real estate), thus they “do not maximize the return for a given level of risk taken).

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Americans Feel Politicians Lost Touch With Public Health Care Needs

A SURVEY-POLL

By Staff Reporters

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A recent poll of 2,510 American adults by Ipsos found:

 •  87% of Americans feel politicians have lost touch with what the public needs from their health care.
 •  86% of Americans agree that Congress should focus on cracking down on abusive health insurance practices that make it harder for people to get the care they need.
 •  71% of Americans would rather see Congress focus more on reducing the overall costs of health care coverage such as premiums, deductibles, and co-pays.

Source: Ipsos, “Americans frustrated with insurance coverage and costs,” March 1, 2022

CDC: https://www.cdc.gov/publichealthgateway/publichealthservices/essentialhealthservices.html

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Some Common Medical Practice Accounting Embezzlement Schemes

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Understanding How to Avoid Office Embezzlement – Old School

[By Dr. Gary L. Bode CPA, MSA]

Without proper internal accounting controls, a medical practice, clinic or any health entity would never reach peak efficiency or profitability. Internal controls designed and implemented by the practice physician-owner, help prevent bad things from happening.

Embezzlement protection is the classic example. However, internal controls also help ensure good things happen, at least most of the time. A procedural manual or text like: www.BusinessofMedicalPractice.com that teaches physicians how to deal effectively with, and avoid, common schemes is suggested.

Common Schemes

Here is a list of some embezzlement schemes to avoid; however it is imaginative and endless.

  • The physician-owner pocketing cash “off the books”. To the IRS, this is like embezzlement to intentionally defraud it out of tax money.
  • Employee’s pocketing cash from cash transactions.  This is why you see cashiers following protocol that seems to take forever when you’re in the grocery check out line. This is also why you see signs offering a reward if he/she is not offered a receipt. This is partly why security cameras are installed.
  • Bookkeepers writing checks to themselves.  This is easiest to do in flexible software programs like QuickBooks, Peachtree Accounting and financial software [www.Peachtree.com]. It is one of the hardest schemes to detect. The bookkeeper self-writes and cashes the check to their own name; and then the name on the check is changed in the software program to a vendor’s name.  So a real check exists which looks legitimate on checking statements unless a picture of it is available.
  • Employees ordering personal items on practice credit cards.
  • Bookkeepers receiving patient checks and illegally depositing them in an unauthorized, pseudo practice checking account, set up by themselves, in a bank different from yours. They then withdraw funds at will. If this scheme uses only a few patients, who are billed outside of the practice’s accounting software, this is hard to detect.  Executive-management must have a good knowledge of existing patients to catch the ones “missing” from practice records. Monitoring the bookkeeper’s lifestyle might raise suspicion, but this scheme is generally low profile, but protracted. Checking the accounting software “audit trail”, this shows the required original invoice deletions or credit memos in a less sophisticated version of this scheme.
  • Bookkeepers writing payroll checks to non-existent employees. This scheme works well in larger practices and medical clinics with high seasonal turnover of employees, and practices with multiple locations the physician-owner doesn’t visit often.
  • Bookkeepers writing inflated checks to existing employees, vendors or subcontractors. Physician-owners should beware if romantic relationships between the bookkeeper and other practice related parties.
  • Bookkeepers writing checks to false vendors. This is another low profile, protracted scheme that exploits the physician-owner’s indifference to accounts payable.

Assessment

Operating efficiency, safeguarding assets, quality patient care, compliance with existing laws, and accuracy of financial transactions are common goals of internal controls.

Conclusion

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CORRELATION in Modern Portfolio Theory Investing

“Correlation” has been used over the past twenty years by institutions, [physician] investors and financial advisors to assemble portfolios of moderate INVESTMENT risk

By Dr. David Edward Marcinko MBA CMP®

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SPONSOR: http://www.CertifiedMedicalPlanner.org

Modern Portfolio Theory approaches investing by examining the complete market and the full economy. MPT places a great emphasis on the correlation between investments. 

DEFINITION: Correlation is a measure of how frequently one event tends to happen when another event happens. High positive correlation means two events usually happen together – high SAT scores and getting through college for instance. High negative correlation means two events tend not to happen together – high SATs and a poor grade record. No correlation means the two events are independent of one another.

CITATION: https://www.r2library.com/Resource/Title/0826102549

CORRELATION: https://medicalexecutivepost.com/2021/02/05/correlation-is-not-causation/

In statistical terms two events that are perfectly correlated have a “correlation coefficient” of 1; two events that are perfectly negatively correlated have a correlation coefficient of -1; and two events that have zero correlation have a coefficient of 0.

In calculating correlation, a statistician would examine the possibility of two events happening together, namely:

  • If the probability of A happening is 1/X;
  • And the probability of B happening is 1/Y; then
  • The probability of A and B happening together is (1/X) times (1/Y), or 1/(X times Y).

There are several laws of correlation including;

  1. Combining assets with a perfect positive correlation offers no reduction in portfolio risk.  These two assets will simply move in tandem with each other.
  2. Combining assets with zero correlation (statistically independent) reduces the risk of the portfolio.  If more assets with uncorrelated returns are added to the portfolio, significant risk reduction can be achieved.
  3. Combing assets with a perfect negative correlation could eliminate risk entirely.   This is the principle with “hedging strategies”.  These strategies are discussed later in the book.

In the real world, negative correlations are very rare.  Most assets maintain a positive correlation with each other.  The goal of a prudent investor is to assemble a portfolio that contains uncorrelated assets.  When a portfolio contains assets that possess low correlations, the upward movement of one asset class will help offset the downward movement of another.  This is especially important when economic and market conditions change.

As a result, including assets in your portfolio that are not highly correlated will reduce the overall volatility (as measured by standard deviation) and may also increase long-term investment returns. This is the primary argument for including dissimilar asset classes in your portfolio. Keep in mind that this type of diversification does not guarantee you will avoid a loss.  It simply minimizes the chance of loss. 

In this table provided by Ibbotson, the average correlation between the five major asset classes is displayed. The lowest correlation is between the U.S. Treasury Bonds and the EAFE (international stocks).  The highest correlation is between the S&P 500 and the EAFE; 0.77 or 77 percent. This signifies a prominent level of correlation that has grown even larger during this decade.   Low correlations within the table appear most with U.S. Treasury Bills.

Historical Correlation of Asset Classes

Benchmark                             1          2          3         4         5         6            

1 U.S. Treasury Bill                  1.00    

2 U.S. Bonds                          0.73     1.00    

3 S&P 500                               0.03     0.34     1.00    

4 Commodities                         0.15     0.04     0.08      1.00      

5 International Stocks              -0.13    -0.31    0.77      0.14    1.00       

6 Real Estate                           0.11      0.43    0.81     -0.02    0.66     1.00

Table Source: Ibbotson 1980-2012

ASSESSMENT: Your thoughts are appreciated.

Comprehensive Financial Planning Strategies for Doctors and Advisors: Best Practices from Leading Consultants and Certified Medical Planners™

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PODCAST: Will Your Health Care Directives Protect You?

By Rick Kahler CFP

PODCAST: https://kahlerfinancial.com/financial-awakenings/estate-planning/will-your-health-care-directives-protect-you

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MORE: https://www.nia.nih.gov/health/advance-care-planning-health-care-directives

CITE: https://www.r2library.com/Resource/Title/0826102549

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Risk Management: https://www.routledge.com/Risk-Management-Liability-Insurance-and-Asset-Protection-Strategies-for/Marcinko-Hetico/p/book/9781498725989

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